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[阅读] 【英语同源读物】养老金不足--日本民众要为退休生活积累...

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发表于 2019-8-28 11:47 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
英语外刊的阅读有多重要呢?2017-2019年考研英语真题中,所有的阅读素材均来源于英语外刊。由此可见,外刊对考研英语的重要性不言而喻,早早打好基础,不仅能熟悉掌握考研英语的出题套路,没准儿还能在考场上碰到已读过的素材哦~
     
从今天开始,小编将会在每周定期为大家更新《英语同源读物》,《英语同源读物》是考研帮会员的专属特权,除第一期免费试读外,之后的内容要订阅会员才能查看完整版哟~
     
❤时代背景
     
日本金融厅6月初发布的一份养老报告,差点让安倍政府下不来台。该报告得出结论说:对活到95岁的日本老年夫妇来说,如果不工作而仅靠公共养老金支付各种开支,将出现2000万日元(约合128万元人民币)的资金缺口。因此,报告敦促人们提早开始积累资产,以帮助支付退休后的各种开支。
     
❤原文
     
Japanese people need to put more aside for retirement
第一期:养老金.png
     
Last month Japan's Financial Services Agency (FSA), the financial-industry regulator, lobbed a grenade into a fractious debate on how to support the world's oldest population in retirement. The typical elderly couple, it warned, will need to top up their public pensions by a whopping ?20m ($185,000). The furore that followed put Taro Aso, the finance minister, on the back foot. Japan's pension system "will never collapse", he insisted.
     
His attempt at reassurance was widely mocked. A cartoon in a weekly magazine depicted him helping a Buddhist deity dispatch souls to financial heaven or hell. The implication was that, aged 78 and one of Japan's richest politicians, he personally did not risk ending up in penury.
     
And yet the gloomy forecast should have come as no surprise. Government mandarins have fretted over Japan's pension system for years. The Nikkei Shimbun, a staid business newspaper, warned last year of "disaster" unless it was reformed. The system was built on the expectation that people would live until their 70s or 80s, says Naoyuki Yoshino of the Asian Development Bank Institute, a think-tank. But more than half of Japanese babies today can expect to live to over 100. A quarter of all 60-year-olds will still be alive in 35 years, estimates the government.
     
All 20- to 59-year-olds in work must pay a flat premium of ?16,410 into the national pension fund every month. Those who do so for 40 years get a full pension, currently ?780,100 a year. But the system is imbalanced, with shrinking numbers paying in and growing numbers drawing out. Japan already has more than 35m people aged over 65-28% of the population. The share is projected to reach a third by 2050.
     
Japan's pensions are comparatively stingy, with several countries spending more despite their younger populations. A couple in their 60s on the basic state pension would be ?50,000 short each month compared with average household expenditure, says the FSA. A survey by the welfare ministry published on July 2nd found that half of all retired people had no income beyond their pension.
     
The system is due to get even stingier, with spending as a share of GDP planned to stay almost static as the population ages. The FSA's calculation was supposed to prod people into better retirement planning. But that would mean taking greater risks, says Noriyuki Takayama of the Research Institute for Policies on Pension and Ageing, a think-tank-and Japanese people are highly risk-averse. The bulk of Japan's ?1.83 quadrillion in household financial assets is held in post offices or bank accounts that pay zero interest. Most of it is owned by people who remember the puncturing of Japan's asset bubble a generation ago.
     
Getting them to diversify is both a challenge and a "business opportunity," says Toshihide Endo, the FSA's director, given that the net assets of elderly households have been almost flat for 20 years. "This implies that wealth formation is failing to keep pace with increased longevity."
     
Mr Yoshino draws an unflattering comparison with America, where major asset classes have increased in value far faster than in Japan. But the fear of losses deters many Japanese investors. Nerves have been jangled by a record loss in the most recent quarter at the Government Pension Investment Fund, the world's largest. Five years ago Shinzo Abe, the prime minister, pressed its managers into shifting about half its assets into equities and slashing its holdings of domestic bonds.
     
Japan is a harbinger of changes to come elsewhere. The World Bank forecasts a shortfall in retirement savings in big countries of about $400trn dollars by 2050. More adventurous investment may be part of the solution. Japan's government also wants to raise the retirement age from 65 to 70. "The very easy answer is that everyone should keep working as long as possible," says Mr Yoshino.
     
❤译文
     
养老金不足--日本民众要为退休生活积累更多资产
     
上个月,日本金融厅(金融监管机构)展开了激烈争论,争论的焦点是如何支持全球年龄最大的本国退休人口。该机构提醒称,一对普通老年夫妇需额外积累高达2000万日元(18.5万美元)的资产,以弥补公共养老金的不足。消息一出,随即引发了民众不满,使日本财长麻生太郎成为众矢之的,但他坚信,日本的养老体系"永远不会崩塌"。
     
麻生太郎试图安抚民众,却遭到了广泛的嘲笑。一本周刊杂志上曾有漫画将他刻画为,帮助佛教神灵将灵魂带到金融天堂或地狱的人。漫画暗示着,现年78岁的麻生太郎是日本最富有的政客之一,他的晚年当然不会陷入穷困。
     
然而,悲观的预测本不该让人感到意外。多年来,政府官员一直在为日本的养老金制度烦恼。古板的商业报纸《日经新闻》去年警告说,日本的养老金体系将面临"灾难",除非进行改革。智库机构亚洲开发银行研究所的吉野直行(Naoyuki Yoshino)表示,日本养老金体系建立之初的预期是人们活到70岁或80岁。但如今,一半以上的日本新生儿有望活到100岁以上。据政府估计,在所有60岁的人口中,有四分之一的人将活到95岁以上。
     
所有20-59岁的在职人员每月都必须向国家养老基金缴纳16,410日元的固定保费,连续坚持缴纳40年可以获得全额养老金,按照当前的金额,退休后每年可领取养老金780,100日元。但由于缴纳人数越来越少,而领取人数越来越多,这一体系面临着失衡的困境。日本已经有超过35万65岁以上的人口,占总人口的28%,预计到2050年,这一比例将达到三分之一。
     
有的国家虽然人口年轻,但却提供给人们更多的养老金,相比之下,日本的养老金则显得寒酸。日本金融厅称,一对60多岁的夫妇,领取基本的国家养老金后,每月的平均家庭开支仍有50,000日元的空缺。福利部7月2日公布的一项调查发现,半数退休人员除退休金外,没有其他收入。
     
由于日本不计划提高养老金支出在GDP中的占比,随着人口老龄化的加剧,日本的养老金体系将变得更加寒酸鄙陋。金融厅应当考虑的本应是让人们享受更好的退休生活,但那将意味着承担更大的风险,而日本人是极其不愿冒险的民族,智库机构退休和老龄化政策研究所的高山宪之(Noriyuki Takayama)如是说道。日本1830万亿日元的家庭金融资产中,有很大一部分放在零利息的邮局或银行账户中。有的人仍然对三十年前的日本资产泡沫危机记忆犹新,而他们正是绝大多数家庭金融资产的所有者。
     
鉴于老年家庭的净资产近20年来几乎没有增长,让他们实现多元化既是挑战,也是"商机",日本金融厅主任益川敏英·远藤(Toshihide Endo)说道,"这意味着财富增长未能跟上寿命增长的步伐。"
     
吉野直行毫不客气地把美国拿来跟日本对比,前者主要资产类别的增值速度远远快于后者。但由于最近一个季度,全球最大的日本政府养老投资基金出现创纪录的亏损,人们的神经变得紧张起来,投资者也开始忌惮遭受损失。五年前,日本首相安倍晋三向基金会经理人施压,要求其将约一半资产转移至股市,并削减手中持有的国内债券。
     
日本是其它国家发生变革的先兆。世界银行预测,到2050年,大国的退休储蓄将有约400万亿美元的短缺,进行更多的风险投资可能会是一种应对方案。日本政府还希望将退休年龄从65岁提高到70岁。吉野直行说:"答案很简单,每个人都要尽可能地延长工作时间。"
     
❤重点词汇
     
【1】pension ['pɛnʃən]:n. 养老金;退休金;抚恤金;v.发给…养老金(退休金)
常用搭配:pension sb off准许某人退休,强迫某人退休(并发给养老金)
例句:He was pensioned off and his job given to a younger man.
他被迫退休,工作交给了一个年轻一些的人。
     
【2】fractious ['frækʃəs]:adj.脾气不好的;易怒的;表示不满的;捣乱的
例句:The children were predictably fractious.
这些孩子果然不好管教。
注意:不要混淆fractious和factious ['frækʃəs]:adj.内讧的;闹派别的
例如:this factious dispute has split the party still further
这场派系纷争进一步加剧了该政党的分裂)。
     
【3】reassurance[ˌriːəˈʃʊrəns]:n.(能消除疑虑等的)肯定; 能消除疑虑的说话(或行动); 保证
例句:She needed reassurance that she belonged somewhere
她需要一种归属感让她安心。
     
【4】mock [mɑk]:vt. 愚弄,嘲弄;adj. 仿制的,模拟的,虚假的,不诚实的;
n. 英国模拟考试(mocks)
常用搭配:to mock up sth | to mock sth up制作…的实体模型
例句:Landscapes are mocked up in a general kind of way.
用普通方式制作了景观模型。
     
【5】whoping['wɒpɪŋ]:adj. 巨大的;天大的;whop(抽、打)的现在分词
例句:The Russian leader won a whopping 89.9 percent yes vote.
这位俄罗斯领导人赢得了89.9%的高票支持。
     
【6】furore ['fjʊrɔr]:n. 狂怒,喧闹
例句:He caused a furore by describing people with Down's syndrome as `mongol'.
他用"蒙古病患者"来称呼唐氏综合征患者,引起了众怒。
     
【7】dispatch [dɪ'spætʃ]:vt. 派遣,调度;(迅速地)发出;迅速处理;处决(罪犯等)
n. (使者等的)派遣;急件;迅速办理,快速处理;(记者发回的)新闻报道
常用搭配: to dispatch sb/sth to sth把某人派去某地/把某物发到某地
例句:My sister was dispatched to Scotland.
我姐姐被派往苏格兰。
     
【8】penury ['pɛnjəri]:n. 贫困;贫穷
例句:They faced penury unless they could secure employment very soon.
除非能很快找到工作,否则他们就会面临穷困潦倒的境地。
     
【9】gloomy ['ɡlumi]:adj. 黑暗的;沮丧的;阴郁的
例句:Miller is gloomy about the fate of the serious playwright in America.
米勒对这位严肃剧作家在美国的命运持悲观态度。
     
【10】fret [frɛt]:v.(使)烦恼;(使)焦急;(使)磨损;侵蚀;n.烦躁;磨损;焦急
常用搭配:to fret about sb/sth | to fret over sb/sth 为…担忧
例句:Vera is fretting about her sick children.
薇拉正在担忧着她生病的孩子们。
     
【11】stingy ['stɪndʒi]:adj.吝啬的;小气的
例句:He is not stingy at all; on the contrary, no one could be more generous.
他一点儿也不吝啬,相反,没有比他更大方的了。
     
【12】slash [slæʃ]:vt. 挥砍;鞭打;严厉批评;大幅削减;vi. 严厉地批评;猛砍
n. 猛砍;斜线;刀痕,伤痕;沼泽低地
常用搭配:to slash at sb/sth劈;砍;抽打
例句:He slashed at her, aiming carefully.
他仔细地瞄准她劈了过去。
     
【13】unflattering [ʌn'flætərɪŋ]:不奉承的;不讨好的,使人显得难看的,直言不讳的
例句:He depicted the town's respectable families in an unflattering light.
他在描述镇上的体面家庭时全无恭维之意。
     
【14】premium ['primɪəm]:保险费;额外费用,附加费,加价;(工资等之外的)补贴,津贴,奖金;奖金,奖品
习语:(1)to be at a premium非常珍贵;奇缺
例句:If space is at a premium, choose adaptable furniture.
如果空间狭小,就选择可改装的家具。
(2)to place a high premium on sth | to put a high premium on sth高度重视某物
例句:They put a high premium on prevention and primary care.
他们十分重视预防和基础保健。
     
【15】harbinger ['hɑrbɪndʒɚ]:n.先驱;预兆
例句:The November air stung my cheeks, a harbinger of winter.
11月的空气刺痛了我的脸颊,预示着冬天即将到来。
     
❤长难句分析
     
【1】 Last month Japan's Financial Services Agency (FSA), the financial-industry regulator, lobbed a grenade into a fractious debate on how to support the world's oldest population in retirement.
     
分析:本句的主语是Japan's Financial Services Agency (FSA),主干是Japan's Financial Services Agency...lobbed a grenade into a fractious debate; the financial-industry regulator作FSA的同位语;debate on... 是固定搭配,表示就……展开争论。
     
参考译文:上个月,日本金融厅(金融监管机构)展开了激烈争论,争论的焦点是如何支持全球年龄最大的本国退休人口。
     
【2】 The FSA's calculation was supposed to prod people into better retirement planning. But that would mean taking greater risks, says Noriyuki Takayama of the Research Institute for Policies on Pension and Ageing, a think-tank-and Japanese people are highly risk-averse.
     
分析:本句选择了两句话,第一句是作为背景信息,不做结构分析。第二句的主干是But that would mean taking greater risks and Japanese people are highly risk-averse;says Noriyuki Takayama of the Research Institute for Policies on Pension and Ageing作为一个插入语,表明说话人的身份,这是外刊中经常采用的一种表述方法;a think-tank是the Research Institute for Policies on Pension and Ageing的同位语,起到解释说明的作用。
     
遇到这样的句子可以调整语序,防止漏信息或造成理解混乱,方法是把插入结构放在句尾或句首,如本句可处理为:But that would mean taking greater risks and Japanese people are highly risk-averse, says...
     
参考译文:但那将意味着承担更大的风险,而日本人是及其不愿冒险的民族,智库机构退休和老龄化政策研究所的高山宪之(Noriyuki Takayama)如是说道。
     
【3】Getting them to diversify is both a challenge and a "business opportunity," says Toshihide Endo, the FSA's director, given that the net assets of elderly households have been almost flat for 20 years.
     
分析:本句的主语是Getting them to diversify,主干是Getting them to diversify is both a challenge and a "business opportunity,"。类似于第二句,同样是要把插入成分says引导的句子调整至句末,将given引导的条件状语从句前移,而且翻译时中文习惯于先说条件和原因,再说结果。因此本句的结构可以调整为Getting them to diversify is both a challenge and a "business opportunity," given that the net assets of elderly households have been almost flat for 20 years, says Toshihide Endo, the FSA's director.
     
积累given(介词)、considering(介词)、provided(连词)引导条件状语的句式表达。如:He'll play in the next match provided he's fit. 如果他身体状况良好,那他将出战下场比赛。
     
参考译文:鉴于老年家庭的净资产近20年来几乎没有增长,让他们实现多元化既是挑战,也是"商机",日本金融厅主任Toshihide Endo说道。
     
会员中心体验更佳哦,想看《英语同源读物》的更多内容,开通会员享有专属权益【开通戳这里】,除《英语同源读物》外,还可《时政•百解》等其他五项专属特权!
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 楼主| 发表于 2019-8-28 15:08 来自手机 | 显示全部楼层
考研帮会员享有:英语同源读物、时政-百解、政治知识框架图、英语佛脚词、个性装扮和1000K币六项专属特权!

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发表于 2019-8-28 23:13 来自手机 | 显示全部楼层
每日一更吗?

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发表于 2019-8-29 01:06 来自手机 | 显示全部楼层
英语好难啊

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发表于 2019-8-29 08:35 | 显示全部楼层
不错不错
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发表于 2019-8-29 16:19 来自手机 | 显示全部楼层
完了…没法退休了…

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发表于 2019-8-29 17:22 来自手机 | 显示全部楼层
怎么复习英语有效?

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发表于 2019-8-29 20:44 来自手机 | 显示全部楼层
好棒好棒!
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[害羞][害羞]

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 楼主| 发表于 2019-8-30 11:55 | 显示全部楼层

这是会员的包年期刊哟~
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