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英语作文写作资料汇总!!!希望对大家有帮助~

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2008-11-24
发表于 2009-4-21 22:25 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
英文写作中常用的逻辑词汇
1. 并列关系
and, furthermore, more than that, also, likewise, moreover, in addition, what is more, for instance, for example
2. 转折关系
although, however, on the contrary, but, in spite of, nevertheless, yet, otherwise, despite
3. 顺序关系
first, second, third, and so on, then, after, before, next
4. 因果关系
as a result, for, thus, because, for this reason, so, therefore, as, since, consequently, on account of
5. 归纳关系
as a result, finally, therefore, accordingly, in short, thus, consequently, in conclusion, so, in brief, in a word
几个用得比较多的句子:
As far as I am concerned, the advantages of … outweigh its disadvantages.Nevertheless, the disadvantages of … is undeniable.
To sum up/ In general/ On the whole/ In brief/ In short/ In a word, it is true that … bring about both positive and negative results. But we can try our best to reduce the negative influence to the least extent.
Obviously, in every aspect, …
This diagram unfolds a clear comparison between…and…
As to the other three, though the growth rates were not so high, they were indeed remarkable and impressive.
英文作文中常用套句
下文中出现的 A,B, “...”(某事物), "sb"( somebody),
要在写作中要根据上下文进行适当替换.
开头:
When it comes to ..., some think ...
There is a public debate today that ...
A is a commen way of ..., but is it a wise one?
Recentaly the problem has been brought into focus.
提出观点:
Now there is a growing awareness that...
It is time we explore the truth of ...
Nowhere in history has the issue been more visible.
进一步提出观点:
... but that is only part of the history.
Another equally important aspect is ...
A is but one of the many effects. Another is ...
Besides, other reasons are...
提出假想例子的方式:
Suppose that...
Just imagine what would be like if...
It is reasonable to expect...
It is not surprising that...
举普通例子:
For example(instance),...
... such as A,B,C and so on (so forth)
A good case in point is...
A particular example for this is...
引用:
One of the greatest early writers said ...
"Knowledge is power", such is the remard of ...
"......". That is how sb comment ( criticize/ praise...).
"......". How often we hear such words like there.
讲故事
(先说故事主体),this story is not rare.
..., such delimma we often meet in daily life.
..., the story still has a realistic significance.
提出原因:
There are many reasons for ...
Why .... , for one thing,...
The answer to this problem involves many factors.
Any discussion about this problem would inevitably involves ...
The first reason can be obiviously seen.
Most people would agree that...
Some people may neglect that in fact ...
Others suggest that...
Part of the explanation is ...
进行对比:
The advantages for A for outweigh the disadvantages of...
Although A enjoys a distinct advantage ...
Indeed , A carries much weight than B when sth is concerned.
A maybe ... , but it suffers from the disadvantage that...
承上启下:
To understand the truth of ..., it is also important to see...
A study of ... will make this point clear
让步:
Certainly, B has its own advantages, such as...
I do not deny that A has its own merits.
结尾:
>From what has been discussed above, we may safely draw
the conclusion that ...
In summary, it is wiser ...
In short...
在作文中引用合适的名言警句,会给你的文章增色许多。这里收集了我本人喜爱的一些名言,可能会对你有用。我们使用引用的位置可以在开头结尾或正文段落中,
常见的使用形式如下:
One of the greatest early writers said ...
"Knowledge is power", such is the remard of ...
"......". That is how sb comment ( criticize/ praise...).
"......". How often we hear such words like there.
Useful quotations
逆境
by Robert Collier
In every adversity there lies the seed of an equivalent advantage. In every defeat there is a lesson showing you how to win the victory next time.
努力与成功
by Ann Landers
Opportunities are usually disguised as hard work, so most people don't recognize them.
坚持
by Ralph Waldo Emerson
No one can cheat you out of ultimate success but yourselves.
Confucius 孔子
Our greatest glory is not in never falling...
but in rising every time we fall.
坚持
Mother Teresa
To keep a lamp burning we have to keep putting oil in it.

Henry Ford
Nothing is particularly hard if you divide it inuo small jobs.

Winston Churchill
Never, never, never, never give up.

Albert Einstein
In uhe middle of difficulty lies opportunity.
努力与成功
by Crassus
Those who aim at great deeds must suffer greatly.
Thomas Edison
There is no substitute for hard work.

Leo Tolstoi
The strongest of all warriors are these two- Time and Patience.
Thomas Jefferson
I'm a great believer in luck,
and I find the harder I work...
the more I have of it.
Robert Collier
Success is the sum of small efforts, repeated day in and day out.
Ray A. Croc
Luck is a dividend of sweat. The more you sweat, the luckier you get.
实际经验与间接经验
You'll learn more about a road by traveling it...
than by consulting all the maps in the world.
动机与结果
Vince Lombardi
Winning isn't everything...
but wanting to win is.

John F. Kennedy
We choose to go!to the moon and other things , oot because they are easy, but because they are hard.

Thucydides
The strong do what they will.
The weak do what they must.
为人态度:
John Wooden
Talent is God given--Be Humble.
Fame is man given-- Be Thankful.
Conceit is self given --Be Careful.
行动:
Theodore Roosevelt
Do what you can , with what you have , with where you are.
Publilius Syrus Maxim
No one knows what he can do till he tries.
Terence
There is nothing so easy but that it becomes difficult when you do it reluctantly.
Thomas Fuller
A wise man turns chance into good fortune.
William Hazlitt
Prosperity is a great teacher;
adversity is a greater.
William Penn
No pains, no palm;
no thorns, no throne;
no gall , no glory;
no cross, no crown.
Will Rogers
Even if you're on the right track, you'll get run over... if you just sit there.
Opportunity rarely knocks on your door.
Knock rather on opportunity's door if you ardently wish to enter.
成功与失败
Vince Lombardi
It's not whether you get knocked down.
...It's whether you get up again.
Winston Churchill
An optimist sees an opportunity in every calamity;
a pessimist sees a calamity in every opportunity.
热情(年轻/年老)
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Nothing great was ever achieved without enthusiasm.
信心
James Allen
The will to do springs from the knowledge that we can do.
Samuel Johnson
Few things are impossible to diligence and skill.
Aughey
Lost time is never found again.
Voltaire
No problem can stand the assault of sustained thinking.
Napoleon
Victory belongs to the most persevering.
细心
Euipides
Leave no stone unturned.
计划与工作
Norman Vincent Peale
Plan your work for today and every day;
then work your plan.
Henry Ford
Failure is only the opportunity to more intelligently begin again.
Thomas Edison
I start where the last man left off.
理想与现实
What the mind of man can conceive and believe,
the mind of a man can achieve.
勤奋
Benjamin Franklin
Plough deep while sluggards sleep.
目标
Henry David Thoreau
In the lone run men hit only what they aim at.
幸运
Emily Dickinson
Luck is not chance...
It's toil...
Fortune's expensive smile is earned.
勤奋
Thomas Edison
Genius is one percent inspiration and ninety-nine percent perspiration.
Useful Quotations
想象力
Albert Einstein
Imagination is more important than knowledge.
挑战:
Walter Begehot
The great pleasure in life is doing what people say you cannot do.
机会与准备
Abraham Lincoln
I will prepare and some day my chance will come.
信心与事实
Henry Ford
Whether you think you can or think you can't -- you are right.
English Proverb
Where there's a will there's a way.
There is no failure excepting no longer trying.
Luck is what happens when preparation meets opportunity.

能为四六级写作加分的精彩好句
一、用于驳性和比较性论文
  1. In general, I don’t agree with
  2. In my opinion, this point of view doesn’t hold water.
  3. The chief reason why… is that…
  4.There is no true that…
  5. It is not true that…
  6. It can be easily denied than…
  7. We have no reason to believe that…
  8. What is more serious is that…
  9. But it is pity that…
  10. Besides, we should not neglect that…
  11. But the problem is not so simple. Therefore…
  12. Others may find this to be true, but I believer that…
  13. Perhaps I was question why…
  14. There is a certain amount of truth in this, but we still have a problem with regard to…
  15. Though we are in basic agreement with…,but
  16. What seems to be the trouble is^
  17. Yet differences will be found, that’s why I feel that…
  18. It would be reasonable to take the view that …, but it would be foolish to claim that…
  19. There is in fact on reason for us so believe that…
  20. What these people fail to consider is that…
  21. It is one thing to insist that… , it is quite another to show that …
  22. Wonderful as A is , however, it has its own disadvantages too.
  23. The advantages of B are much greater than A.
  24. A’s advantage sounds ridiculous when B’s advantages are taken into consideration.
  二、用于描写图表和数据
  1. It has increased by three times as compared with that of 1998.
  2. There is an increase of 20% in total this year.
  3. It has been increased by a factor of 4since 1995.
  4. It would be expected to increase 5 times.
  5. The table shows a three times increase over that of last year.
  6. It was decreased twice than that of the year 1996.
  7. The total number was lowered by 10%.
  8. It rose from 10-15 percent of the total this year.
  9. Compared with 1997, it fell from 15 to 10 percent.
  10. The number is 5 times as much as that of 1995.
  11. It has decreased almost two and half times, compared with…

  三、用于解释性和阐述性论说文
  1.Everybody knows that…
  2.It can be easily proved that…
  3. It is true that…
  4. No one can deny that
  5. One thing which is equally important to the above mentioned is…
  6. The chief reason is that…
  7. We must recognize that…
  8. There is on doubt that…
  9. I am of the opinion that…
  10. This can be expressed as follows;
  11. To take …for an example…
  12. We have reason to believe that
  13. Now that we know that…
  14. Among the most convincing reasons given, one should be mentioned…
  15. The change in …largely results from the fact that
  16. There are several causes for this significant growth in…,first …,second …,finally…
  17. A number of factors could account for the development in…
  18. Perhaps the primary reason is…
  19. It is chiefly responsible of…
  20. The reasons for…are complicated, And probably they are found in the fact…
  21. Here are several possible reasons, excerpt that…
  22. Somebody believes/argues/holds/insists/thinks that…
  23. It is not simple to give the reason for this complicated phenomenon…
  24. Different people observes it in different ways.
  四、用于文章的开头
  1. As the proverb says…
  2. It goes without saying tan…
  3. Generally speaking…
  4. It is quite clear than because…
  5. It is often said that …
  6. Many people often ask such question:“…?”
  7. More and more people have come to realize…
  8. There is no doubt that…
  9. Some people believe that…
  10. These days we are often old that, but is this really the case?
  11. One great man said that…
  12. Recently the issue of… has been brought to public attention.
  13. In the past several years there has been…
  14. Now it is commonly held that… but I doubt whether…
  15. Currently there is a widespread concern that…
  16. Now people in growing number are coming to realize that…
  17. There is a general discussion today about the issue of …
  18. Faced with…, quite a few people argue that…, but other people conceive differently.
  五、用于文章的结尾
  1. from this point of view…
  2. in a word…
  3. in conclusion…
  4. on account of this we can find that…
  5. the result is dependent on…
  6. therefore, these findings reveal the following information:
  7. thus, this is the reason why we must…
  8. to sum up …
  9. as far as…be concerned, I believe that…
  10. It is obvious that…
  11. There is little doubt that…
  12. There is no immediate solution to the problem of …, but …might be helpful
  13. None of the solutions is quite satisfactory. The problem should be examined in a new way.
  14. It is high time that we put considerable emphasis on…
  15. Taking into account all these factors, we may safely reach the conclustion that…
  六、用于论证和说明
  1. As it is described that…
  2. It has been illustrated that…
  3. It provides a good example of…
  4. We may cite another instance of…
  5. History man provides us with the examples of…
  6. A number of further facts may be added…
  7. The situation is not unique, it is typical of dozens I have heard.
  8. A recent investigation indicate that…
  9. According to the statistics provided …
  10. According to a latest study, it can be predicted…
  11. There is no sufficient evidence to show that…
  12. All available evidence points to the fact that…
  13. Examples given leads me to conclude that…
  14. It reveals the unquestionable fact that…
  15. The idea may be proved by facts…
  16. All the facts suggest that…
  17. No one can deny the fact that…
  18. We may face the undeniable fact that…
  ●表示比较和对照关系的句型:
  1) A is to B what/ as C is to D(A之于B犹如C之于D).
  2) Just as..., so...
  3) A and B have sth in common.
  4) A is similar to B.
  5) The same is true of,The same can be said of(……也是如此).
  6) The advantages of A are much greater than B.
  7) compared with B, A has many advantages.
  8) The advantages outweigh the disadvantages(利大于弊).
  9) Wonderful as A is, however, it has its own disadvantages too.
  10) Although A enjoys considerable advantage over..., it can not compete with B in...
  11) Contrary to widely accepted views, I believe that...
  12) What people fail to consider is that...
  13) It is one thing to insist that..., it is quite another to show that...
  14) Nothing can rival…(……是无与伦比的)
  15) …has drawbacks as well as merits.
  16) A is superior(inferior) to B.
  17) ...varies from person to person(……是因人而异的)
  18) A is just the opposite (to B)
  19) A differs from B in that…(A不同于B在于……)
  20) …is not the same (as)
  ●过渡性句型:
  1) this is true that...
  2) This is true, no doubt, but...
  3) ...also...
  4) It is one thing to...; it is another to...
  ●描写图表和数据的句型
  1) .. . rank first (both) in...
  2) .. .in proportion to...
  3) A is by far the largest...
  4) As many as....
  5) The number is ...times as much as that of ...
  6) The figure has nearly doubled/tripled, as against that of last year.
  7) It accounts for 35% of...
  8) By comparison with ..., it decreased/increased/fell from...to...
  9) ...rise rapidly(slowly)
  10) ...remain level...
  11) ...reach ...
  12)There is a slight/slow/steady/rapid rise/increase demand./income./population./prices./production./decrease/decline/reduction/fall/drop in
  13) be on the increase/decrease/rise/decline (……在不断的增加,减少,上升,下降)
  ●图表作文中的过渡、概括句型:
  1) As can be indicated in the table, ...
  2) As we could find out later, ...
  3) As is revealed in the table,...
  4) As the survey results show,...
  5) This table provides several important points of comparison
  between,...
  6) The two graphs depict the same thing in ...
  7) The key findings taken from the surveys are as follows:
  8) According to the figures given in the table, ...
  9) This chart shows that ...
  10) As is shown by the graph, ...
  11) It can be seen from the statistics that ...
  12) It is generally believed /accepted/thought/held ...
  ●说明原因的句型:
  1) There are some/two/many good reasons for.../to do...
  2) We have two good reasons for...
  3) The reason for ... is that + 从句
  4) Among the most convincing reasons given by people for..., one should be mentioned...
  5) One may think of the trend as a result of...
  6) The change in... largely results from the fact that...
  7) There are several causes for this significant growth in... irst...
  8) A number of factors could account for the ....
  9) It is no simple task to give the reason for ...
  10) The cause of /reason for higher prices was an increase in demand.
  11) Because/As/Now that/Since the demand has increased, the prices are higher.
  12) An increase in demand causes/results in/leads to/produces higher prices.
  13) The demand has increased.
  14) Therefore,/As a result,/For this reason,/Because of this,/Consequently, the prices are higher.
  15) If there is an increase in demand, then prices rise./go up. /boost./are higher.
  16) Different people look at...in different ways...
  ●表示不同看法的句型:
  1) Different people have/hold different opinions/views on the question/problem/matter. Some believe that ...; Others argue that... :Still others maintain that
  2) They are quite different from each other in their opinions.
  3) Some people hold the opinion that it is good to ....
  4) They think quite differently on this question.
  5) Opinions vary from individual to individual, from culture to culture.
  ●表示必须,紧急,有困难做某事的句型:
1) It is important (necessary, urgent, difficult, easy, convenient, comfortable, expensive, desirable, advisable) for sb. to do sth.
2) ...have trouble/difficulty/a hard time/a difficult time (in) doing sth. (有困难做某事)
英语写作20字诀
Agreement: 主语和谓语在人称、数上的一致,关系代词与先行词的一致。
Ambiguity: 尽量不去使用可能引起歧义的词语或句子。
Brief: 文章"简为贵",要抓住要点,简明扼要。
Coherence: 文理通顺,前后连贯。
Development: 主题的发挥应当充分、合理、正确。
Division: 词汇、句子、段落要分配使用得当,划分要清楚,避免使用重复字句和种子片段。
Figures: 正确合理使用各类修辞格式。
Inflated diction: 不使用做作的语言。
Key: 用适当的关键词突出主题,每段都应有主题句。
Logical: 内容要符合逻辑。
Message: 信息要新鲜、确实、可信。
Omit: 合理删除多余的不必要部分。
Proposition: 主张、观点、论述要清楚肯切、合情入理。
Punctuation: 正确适时使用标点符号。
Relevant: 文章一定要要题。
Sentence pattern: 句型要尽量多样化。
Strait: 开门见山,直来直去。
Style: 文体恰切,适合内容要求。
Tense: 动词时态要正确、一致、变化合理。
Theme: 选题得当,主题突出。

1.开门见山,揭示主题
文章一开头,,就交待清楚文章的主题是什么。如“How I Spent My Vacation”(我怎样度假)的开头是:
I Spent my last vacation happily.
下面是题为"Honesty"(谈诚实)一文中的开头:
Honesty is one of the best virtues.An honest man is always trusted and respected.On the contrary, one who tells lies is regarded as a "liar",and is looked upon by honest people.
2.交代人物、事情、时间或环境开头
在文章的开头,先把人物、事件和环境交待清楚。例如"A Trip to Jinshan" (去金山旅游)的开头:
The day before yesterday my class went on a bus trip to Jinshan. The bus ride there took three hours. The long trip made us very tired, but the sight of the beautiful sea refreshed us.
3. 回忆性的开头
用回忆的方法来开头。例如"A Trip to the Taishan Mountain"(泰山游)的开头是:
I remember my first trip to the Taishan Mountain as if it were yesterday.
4.概括性的开头
即对要在文章中叙述的人或事先作一个概括性的介绍。如“The Happiness of Reading Books”(读书的快乐)的开头:
People often say that gold and silver are the most valuable things in the world. But I say that to read books is more valuable than anything else, because books give us knowledge and knowledge gives us power.
5.介绍环境式的开头
即开头利用自然景物或自然环境引出要介绍的事物。如“An Accident”(一场事故)的开头是:

It was a rainy and windy morning. The sky was gloomy, the temperature was low, and the street was nearly empty. I was on my way back to school. Suddenly, a speeding car came round the corner.
6.交待写作目的的开头。
在文章的一开头就交待写作目的,如通过文章要表扬谁,批评谁,或说明一个什么问题等。如 "Pollution Control" (控制污染)的开头:
In this article I shall draw your attention to the subject of pollution control.
英语作文的文章的正文
文章的正文是由若干段落组成的,段落通常由几个或者更多的句子组成,有时候一个句子也能成段。

文章的正文应以文章的开头为线索,具体地叙述、说明或论证文章的主题。文章不论长短,每个段落都必须为主题服务。像说明文和议论文这一类的文章,一个主题还常分成几个小主题,每个小主题要用一个段落处理,另起一段时,应是一层新的意思。每一段的开头,要放一个表示段落小主题的主题句,这样可使文章条理化,易于阅读,便于读者抓住主题。段内的所有句子应围绕主题句的意义加以阐述或论证,为中心思想服务。句子之间应衔结自然,有条不紊,而且还要合乎逻辑,段落中不能出现任何与主题无关的句子;英语写作比较重视主题句的作用,缺少它段落意义就会含糊不清。主题句也可放在段落的中间和末尾等部位,但对初学者来说,以放在段首为好。见下列这篇题为"How to Be a Good Student" (怎样做个好学生)的文章:
We students are the builders and masters of the country. It is important for us to know how to be a good student.
A good student, I think, should be diligent in his studies. The more he studies, the more he will increase his knowledge. Without enough knowledge, we cannot make great contributions to the modernization of our country.
To take care of one's own body is another important thing for good student to do. Anyone, who hasn't got a strong body, can do nothing for his country, even if he has much knowledge. There was a man, who, when he was student, studied hard but neglected his health. No sooner did he come to serve the country than he died of poor health. From this we may see that to have a strong body is really very important for a student.
Lastly, to cultivate one's own virtue is most important. Virtue is the essence
of a noble and good character. It will greatly help one to be useful and his country heart and soul. When learned people go astray, they do more harm than good to society. We should draw lessons from this.
这篇文章的第一段引出了文章的主题,第二、第三和第四段则是文章的正文,每—段的第一句即是段落的主题句,它们既支持了文章中心的观点和思想,同时又概括了全段的意思。在同一段落中,其余的句子都围绕主题句所表示的中心展开,同时句子间的衔结也很自然;各层的意思都很连贯。
分段是文章组织上重要的一步,但如果写的题目范围很小,那就无须再将题目分成小的主题,并分入各个段落去阐述了。像一篇简短的评论;某一事情的简短记载,某一个想法的说明,对一个人物或一件事情的简要叙述或说明等,就可以只用一个段落来表现主题。
在记叙文中,段的结构有时可以很简单,不需要有主题句,叙事一气呵成,中途没有停顿。段与段之所以分开,只是为了起修辞作用,以便把某一细节置于显著的地位。
某些测试用的表达题,在题目中就已经说明只需要根据。所给的提示写一个段落,而不是一篇文章。对于这一类的写作试题,就可以予以简洁的处理,并不是非要扩充成一篇有头有尾的完整文章。
下面这篇题为“Weekend Homework”(谈周末作业)的短文,就是用一个段落来论述问题和表达观点的。
Usally Saturday night is the time for students to get back to their desks and do their weekend homework. Six school days are enough for the students who have many other interests. I think weekend homework should not be given. With homework arranged for Saturday night and the whole of Sunday, when can he find time to help around the house, play a game of football or see a good film, or just relax? In fact weekend homework is usually put off until Sunday night. As a result our homework is done very poorly and we achive no results. If there were no homework on weekends, students would go to school on Monday well rested, willing to work. Teachers, don't you agree?
英语作文的文章的结尾
文章结尾的作用是概括全文内容,进一步强调或肯定文章的中心思想,使文章意义表达得更加深刻。
文章结尾的形式也是多种多样的,常见的有以下几种:
1.首尾呼应,画龙点睛
在文章的结尾,把含义较深的话放在末尾,以点明主题,深化主题,起到画龙点睛的效果。如"I Cannot Forget Her" (我忘不了她)的结尾:
After her death, I felt as if something were missing in my life. I was sad over her passing away, but I knew she would not have had any regrets at having given her life for the benefit of the people.
2.重复主题句
结尾回到文章开头阐明的中心思想或主题句上,达到强调的效果。如“I Love My Home Town”(我爱家乡)的结尾:
I love my home town, and I love its people. They too have changed. They are going all out to do more for the good of our motherland.
3. 自然结尾
随着文章的结束,文章自然而然地结尾。如“Fishing”(钓鱼)的结尾:
I caught as many as twenty fish in two hours, but my brother caught many more. Tired from fishing, we lay down on the river bank, bathing in the sun. We returned home very late.
4.含蓄性的结尾
用比喻或含蓄的手法不直接点明作者的看法,而是让读者自己去领会和思考。如“A Day of Harvesting”(收割的日子)的结尾:Evening came before we realized it. We put down our sickles and looked at each other. Our clothes were wet with sweat, but on every face there was a smile.
5.用反问结尾
虽然形式是问句,但意义却是肯定的,并具有特别的强调作用,引起读者深思。如 "Should We Learn to Do Housework?" (我们要不要学做家务?) 的结尾。
Everyone should learn to do housework. Don't you agree, boys and girls?
6.指明方向,激励读者
结尾表示对将来的展望,或期待读者投入行动。如“Let's Go in for Sports”(让我们参加体育运动)的结尾:
As we have said above, sports can be of great value. They not only make people live happily but also help people to learn virtues and do their work bettter. A sound mind is in a sound body. Let's go in for sports.

怎样写好英语句子
下面我们以考生的实际作文来进行一下分析。
  1) Some one consider that fresh water will not touch it's end.(96年1月,2分)
  2) One man's life lack of money, he will impossible to live on. (95年1月,5分)
  3) As is know, that there are much fake commodities in today's society.(97年12月,6分)
  这里引述的例句与考生通篇作文的写作水平是一致的,其中5、6分的例句具有典型性,代表了近乎中等水平考生的写作水平。从这些例句中不难看出,中等水平的考生,事实上也包括中上等水平的考生,在写作上存在的主要问题是表达思想不清楚。
  表达思想不清楚的主要原因是考生作文中严重汉化的英语,即中式英语,比如: "man can live happiness", "Man is iron, and food is steel.", "Women are half side sky."。此外,语言错误的普遍性和严重性十分惊人,比如,主谓不一致,名词单复数不分,动词时态语态滥用,常用词拼写错误比比皆是。这些严重地影响了思想的表达。考试实践表明,多数考生在写作上的主要欠缺不是系统的写作理论和方法,而是最基本的单句写作能力。
  文章无论长短,都是由句子组成的,句子是表达思想的最基本的单位。因此,句子是否能写得正确、达意和清楚,将直接影响整篇文章的写作质量。大学英语四、六级考试和研究生入学英语考试的实践都表明,考生写作成绩长期得不到明显提高的主要原因是欠缺写好单句的能力。
  为改变这种状况,我们将从剖析考生作文中的典型病句入手,对写作测试中的基本句子结构和写法进行评议和分析,来帮助考生进一步提高句子写作能力。
  否定结构除了在助动词、情态动词,be和have后面加not之外,还有许多不含not的否定结构。若能正确使用他们,文章会显得生动活泼,增加写作的闪光点。下面我们就来看看:
1. 含有否定意义的词汇和短语
  以下列举的词和词组本身就具有否定的含义,因此无需用否定词。
  介词against, beyond, but, except, without,...
  形容词和动词absent, deny, differ, different, fail, free, ignore, miss, refuse, the last, used to,
  reluctant, lack, want,...
  短语keep...from, protect...from, prevent...from, let alone, at a loss, in vain, instead of, out
  of the question, rather than, too...to, by no means, anything but,...
  我们看以下例句:
  1) Women fail to get the equal rights in some countries.
     在一些国家里妇女没有得到平等的权利。
  2) This is by no means the best way to solve the problem of energy crisis.
    这不是解决能源危机的最好的办法。
  3) We should protect trees from being destroyed.
    我们应保护树木,不让它们受破坏。
  4) In old China we could not make a nail, let alone(make) machines.
    在旧中国,我们连一个钉子都造不了,更不用说制造机器了。
2. 含有半否定意义的词语
  barely, hardly, few, little, rarely, scarcely, seldom, not all, not everyone, not everything,...具
  有半否定的意义。例句:
  1) We could hardly see any fresh vegetables in winter on market several years ago.
    几年前在冬天市场上很难见到新鲜蔬菜。
  2) These young people know little about how to choose good books to read.
    这些年轻人几乎不知道如何挑选优秀的书籍来读。
3. 不含否定意义的否定结构
  有些词和词组形式上是否定结构,但其含义是肯定的,比如:cannot but, can't help,
  no sooner...than, not...until, in no time, none other than, nothing but,等等。例句:
  1) We can't but face the reality.
    我们只有面对现实。
  2) These old buildings will be replaced by modern apartment buildings in no time.
    这些旧建筑将很快为现代化的公寓所代替。
4. 否定结构的倒装语序
  我们有时为了强调而把否定词和词组放在句首,这时句子结构应倒装。例如:
  1) On no account should we follow blindly.我们决不应当盲从。
  2) No where has the world ever seen such great enthusiasm for learning as in our
    country.没有任何其他地方有我国这样高的学习热情。
五、 含有it的结构
考生病句:
  1. As is known to all of us that science and technology play an important role in the
     development of society.
  2. It is known to us, practice makes perfect.
正确表达:
  1. It is known to all of us that science and technology play an important role in the
     development of society. (或:As is known to all of us, science...)
  2. It is known to us that practice makes perfect. (或:As is known to us, practice...)
评议与分析:
  例句1是93年12月六级考试11分作文的评分样卷句子,例句2选自97年1月四级考试作文。很显然,两个考生混淆了it和as的用法。如果用it作形式主语,后面的主语从句必须由that引起;如果用as,则后面不能用that,因为as是关系代词,代表practice makes perfect。
  It 在英语中是个相当活跃的代词,在写作中我们常要使用它。以下几种用法应熟练掌握,并能灵活运用。
  1.作形式主语
  It is necessary for us to master a foreign language skillfully. It makes difference whether
   we could purify the air or not.
  2.作形式宾语
  We find it rather difficult to prevent people from doing that. Modern science has made it
   possible for babies to grow healthily and for people to live longer.
  3.引导强调句
  It is only by this way that we can achieve success. It was then that people began to realize
   the importance of controlling population.
、 "There be"结构
  考生病句:
  1. There are many people like to go to the movies.
  2. There are different kinds of vegetables can be bought on the market by people.
  正确表达:
  1. There are many people who like to go to the movies.
  2. There are different kinds of vegetables that people can buy on the market.
  这两个例句的错误比较有普遍性,因为在历次考试中有不少考生不能正确运用there be这一最常用的句式。在这种结构中,there是引导词,没有实际意义。be在句中作谓语,有时态和数的变化。
例如:
  1. There was no school in the village at that time. (=there was not a school...)
  注意:在否定句中,否定词用no,也可用not a或not any。not a后接单数名词,not a 后接复数名词,no后面的名词单复数都可以。
  2. There is not a moment to be lost.
  3. There are many people rushing into the cities every year.
  4. There are many things we can do to prevent traffic accidents.
  5. There is no use holding back the wheel of history.
  从以上例句还可看出,句中的主语后面可接多种修饰语,如介词短语、不定式短语、定语从句、分词短语等等。这无疑使该结构增加了表现力,使句子表达内容更加丰富。 在运用这一结构时,考生最容易犯的错误是在there be之后又用了一个动词作谓语,使句子结构出现严重错误。这里列举的考生的典型错误均属这种情况,对此我们在写作中要格外注意。

  二、 比较结构
  考生病句:
  1. Comparing with the bike, the car runs much faster.
  2. The climate in Walton is colder than other cities.
  正确表达:
  1. Compared with the bike, the car runs much faster.
  2. The climate in Walton is colder than that of other cities.
  评议与分析:许多考生在作文中用compare或than表示比较,但相当多的表达有误。
  在例1中,对两个事物进行比较的句式为Compared with A, B...,只能用compare的过去分词,不能用现在分词,因为B是分词的逻辑主语,只能被比较。在例2中,考生误将"天气"与"城市"进行比较,而二者没有可比性,只有将后者改为"其他城市的天气"才符合逻辑,很显然,考生的错误是受了汉语表达习惯的影响。
  比较结构是常用结构,正确地使用这一结构可以使文章的句式增加变化,有利于提高写作成绩。一般说来,考生若能恰当、正确地运用这一结构,其写作成绩应在5分以上。
下面是比较结构的一些常用的表达方法。
  1. 同级比较
  1) In 1998 we produced as many cars as we did in the previous five years.
  2) We have accomplished as much in the past three years as would have taken ten years
     in the past.
  2. 比较级
  1) Children now enjoy better medical treatment than before.
  2) We can live longer without food than we can (live ) without water.

  3. 最高级
  1) This is the most interesting book I've ever read.
  2) Of all his novels I like this one best.
  4. the more…the more…结构
  1) The harder you w**r progress you will make.
  2) The more a man knows, the more he discovers his ignorance.
  5. 选择比较
  1) I prefer staying at home to going out.
  2) They prefer to work rather than (to) sit idly.
  3) He prefers to work alone.
  注意:这里的1)句用的是Prefer A to B结构,to为介词,后接名词或动名词;2)句是以不定式作   prefer的宾语;3)句用法同2),只是不把rather than部分表达出来。
  6. 对比
  1) Motion is absolute while stagnation is relative.
  2) He is tired out, whereas she is full of vigour.
  注意:while 和whereas均可用于连接两个意义对立的分句,相当于汉语的"而"字。许多考生能较好地运用这一句式,尤其在图表作文中。
  三、 表达原因的结构
考生病句:
  1. The real reason to our failure is not far to seek.
  2. The reason for this is because some people want to earn plenty of money without
     working hard.
正确表达:
  1. The real reason for our failure is not far to seek.
  2. The reason for this is that some people want to earn plenty of money without working
    hard.
评议与分析:
  以上两个病句分别引自92年1月和97年12月四级考试的考生作文。从遣词造句上看,这两位考生具有一定的写作能力,not far to seek, plenty of money以及without working hard等均运用正确、恰当。但令人遗憾的是,第一位考生不知道reason不与to搭配而应接介词for,第二位考生犯了一个中国学生常犯的错误,就是用because引起表语从句,because这个词不能引起表语从句,在本句中只能改用that才正确。
  掌握好表达原因的结构是十分重要的,几乎所有的写作试题都要求写原因或可以写原因。在大学英语四、六级考试、研究生入学英语考试以及TOEFL考试中,写作的文体基本上是议论文,而议论文的基本模式是摆事实、讲道理,讲道理就是说明原因。写作测试的文体决定了表达原因结构的重要性。
  英语中用来表达原因这一概念的结构有多种。我们可用as , because, since, seeing that, considering that, now that, not that...等词组引出表示原因的从句。例如:
  1. Now that we have seen these great achievements with our own eyes, we feel more
    proud than ever of our country.
  2. Professor Liu is strict with us because he wants us to make rapid progress.
  3. Since we live near the sea, we enjoy a healthy climate.
  4. Pollution is still a serious problem, not that we don't have the ability to solve it, but that
    some people have not realized the consequences of the problem.
  我们还可以借助某些词语用简单句表达原因结构。例如:
  1. The reason for this change is quite obvious.
  2. Diligence is the key factor of success.
  3. Idleness is the root of all evils.
  4. He was ashamed to have made the mistake.(=He was ashamed that he had made the
    mistake. =He was ashamed because he had made the mistake.)
  除了上述的例句外,英语中还有很多或易或难的表达原因的结构。我们在进行写作训练的时候,不能满足于一知半解,要讲究书面语言的正确性和准确性。比如,because是最常用的引导原因从句的连词,语气最强,表示直接的原因,若because置于句首,后面的主句不能再用so。用as引导的原因从句语气较弱,所说明的原因是附带的,而since表示的原因暗示着是稍加分析之后才能推断出来的原因。
  四、 否定结构
  考生病句
  1. Some people think we needn't to worry about fresh water.
  2. Nowadays many people don't like to go to the movies, too.
  正确表达:
  1. Some people think we needn't worry (或don't need to worry) about fresh water.
  2. Nowadays many people don't like to go to the movies, either.
评议与分析:
  例句1选自96年1月四级考生作文,例句2选自92年1月六级考生作文。例句1 的错误在于该考生混淆了need作为情态动词和作为普通动词的用法。need作为情态动词时,主要用于否定句,后面的动词不带to, needn't worry,作we的谓语。need作为实意动词时,可用于肯定句、否定句和疑问句,don't need to worry 中的to worry作don't need的宾语。例句2的错误在于该考生混淆了too和either的区别,这两个词都表示"也"的意思,但是在英语中too, also只能用于肯定句,而either只能用于否定句。
怎样写好英语段落
段落( paragraph )是由表达单一中心思想(controlling idea or central idea )的一组句子(包括主题句 topic sentence,推展句supporting sentences及结论句concluding sentence)构成,是文章结构的基本独立单位。本讲我们将就主题句和中心思想这两个方面展开讨论。

主题句与推展句

1. 主题句
  主题句(topic sentence)是表达段落主题的句子。它用以概括段落大意,要求全段其他文字都围绕它展开。请看下例:
  My mother has passed along to me certain rules for getting along with others. Don't argue with parents; they will think you don't love them. Don't argue with children; they will think themselves victimized. Don't argue with spouses; they will think you are a tiresome mate. Don't argue with strangers; they will think you are not friendly. My mother's rules, in fact, can be summed up in two words: Don't argue.
  主题句中提出的 "certain rules" 指的是什么?展开句中通过四个 "Don't argue --" 逐一加以交代。从结构来看,这是一个比较典型的段落,它包括了主题句,推展句和结论句(即本段中的末句)。  
1.1 主题句的位置
  主题句通常放在段落的开端,其特点是开门见山地摆出问题,然后加以详细说明。其作用是使文章的结构更清晰,更具说服力,便于读者迅速地把握主题和想象全段的内容。主题句可以放在段中起到承上启下的作用,或放在段尾起概括全段的作用。但初学者比较难于掌握,因而在四级考试中,考生应尽量采用将主题句放在段落开头的写作手法。

  例1: Our life today depends very much on energy. In towns and in villages, on farms and in factories, machines have made life easier than it used to be. The machines use energy, and energy is needed for heating, lighting, communications, carrying goods -- everything. Factories and industrial plants use a great deal of energy to make the things that we use and buy and sell.

  这段文字所讲的主要是能源问题。第一句就概括性地提出“我们目前的生活很大程度上依赖于能源”。而随后出现的三句都是具体事例,对第一句进行说明和论述。我们可以断定第一句为该段的主题句(斜体部分)。

  例2: (主题句)No one can avoid being influenced by advertisements. (推展句1)Much as we may pride ourselves on our good taste, we are no longer free to choose the things we want, for advertising exerts a subtle influence on us. (推展句2)In their efforts to persuade us to buy this or that product, advertisers have made a close study of human nature and have classified all our little weakness.
  以上这段由三句话组成。第一句是主题句,直截了当指出无人不受广告影响这个主题,接着列举两个推展句对其补充和支持,指出我们已无法自由选择所需的商品,理由是广告商已仔细研究了我们的心理,并完全掌握了我们的弱点。句子衔接自然,步步紧扣主题。
1.2 如何写好主题句中的关键词
  段落的主题句对主题的限定主要是通过句中的关键词来表现的。关键词要尽量写得具体些。对“具体”的要求包括两个方面:一是要具体到能控制和限制段落的发展;二是要具体到能说明段落发展的方法。准确地把握关键词是清楚地表达段落主题、写好段落主题句的重要前提之一。在上面的例1,例2中,主题句的关键词分别为:depends very much on energy; no one can avoid being influenced. 我们再看下列例句:
  原句1: He can fix a bicycle himself.
  斜体部分应为主题句中的关键词。但它只是限制了段落发展的部分内容,并没有告诉读者该用哪种方法展开,是用因果关系法还是用分类法?
  修正:He can fix a bicycle himself in several simple steps.  
  修正:There are several reasons why he can fix a bicycle himself.
  原句2: She tries to improve her looks.
  斜体部分应为主题句中的关键词。她试着改变她面容的理由是什么?或者她采取什么方法来改善呢?我们无法从关键词中清楚得知。
  修正:She tries many ways to improve her looks.  
  修正:There are some reasons why she tries to improve her looks。
1.3 如何写好主题句的中心思想
  主题句由两部分组成,即主题(topic)和中心思想(controlling idea)。中心思想的作用是导向(control)和制约(limit)。我们前面谈到的关键词就反映了中心思想。所谓导向就是规定段落的发展脉络,所谓制约就是限制主题的覆盖范围,两者不可分割。没有导向,内容就会离题或偏题;没有制约,内容就可能超出一个段落所能容纳的范围。
  对于初学写作的人来说,“导向”的重要性容易理解,但如果由他们自己来构思一个主题句,就可能忽视“制约”这一面。例如:
  There are two ways in which one can own a book. The first is the property right you establish by paying for it, just as you have made it a part of yourself and the best way to make yourself a part of it is by writing in it.
  本段的主题句如果没有in which 引出的定语从句,那么two ways 不仅不能起制约作用,而且也不能起导向作用,句子本身读起来也就使人觉得欠缺点什么。
  Exercise is beneficial to your heart. A 22-year study was conducted by doctors in California. They found that people who work at physical jobs experience fewer heart attacks than other people. These active people work all the time at moderate speeds, their daily routine gives them an adequate amount of exercise and helps them stay in shape.
  "Exercise is beneficial"这是毫无疑义的。但主题句中如不加上"to your heart"来加以 control 和 limit,那就流于空泛。
  因此,紧紧把握主题句中controlling idea的导向和制约作用,是短文写作成功关键之一。
2.推展句
2.1 主要推展句
  主要推展句(major supporting statement)的主要特点是:围绕段落主题句展开的每一个推展句本身都不要求作进一步的说明或证明,句与句之间的关系是相互独立又是互相连接的。
  例1主题句) There are several factors affecting climate. (推展句1)One factor is the mount of sunlight received. (推展句2)Altitude, or the height above sea level, also determines climate. (推展句3)The oceans have an effect on the climate of adjacent land. (推展句4)In addition, climate is influenced by the general circulation of the atmosphere.
  主题句指出影响气候的几个因素。然后用四个扩展句说明四种因素。第一种是太阳光的接收量,第二种是海拔高度,第三句和第四句分别是海洋和大气环流因素。
2.2 次要推展句
  次要推展句(minor supporting statement)是指对主要推展句作进一步的事实分析和举例说明。它从属于某一个或某几个推展句。
  例2:(主题句)I don't teach because teaching is easy for me. (主要推展句1)Teaching is the most difficult of the various ways I have attempted to earn my living: mechanic, carpenter, writer. (主要推展句2)For me, teaching is a red-eye, sweaty-palm, sinking-stomach profession. (次要推展句1)Red-eye, because I never feel ready to teach no matter how late I stay up preparing. (次要推展句2)Sweaty-palm, because I'm always nervous before I enter the classroom, sure that I will be found out for the fool that I am. (次要推展句3)Sinking-stomach, because I leave the classroom an hour later convinced that I was even more boring than usual.
  从属于主要推展句2的三个次要推展句起着解释说明作用,分别解释red-eye, sweaty-palm, sinking-stomach的含义,这就更加形象生动地证明了 "teaching is not easy" 这个主题。
2.3 主要推展句与次要推展句的关系
  主要推展句与次要推展句的关系(relation)基本可以遵循下面的“三部分”(three-part)规则。
  1〕每个主要推展句都应该是对主题句中表示主要思想的关键词的直接、明确的说明。
  2〕每个次要推展句都应该说明它的主要推展句。
  3〕含有讨论说明或分析的问题通常既要有主要推展素材,又要有次要推展素材。
2.4 写好推展句的方法
  主题句及关键词确定后,开始选择和主题有关的信息和素材。实质上,针对关键词测试每一个所选择的素材就是一个分类的过程。有一种常用的方法就是句子展开前加以设问,然后解答,即设问-解答(why-because)的方法。下面我们通过举例来看一看这种分类过程是如何完成的。例3:
  假设 (suppose) Topic sentence: English is an international language?
  设问(why) Why can we say English is an international language?
  解答(because)
  Because: English is spoken by pilots and airport control operators on all the airways of the world.
  Because: Over 70 percent of the world's mail is written in English.
  Because: More than 60 percent of the world's radio programs are in English.
  Because: Pakistan was once one of the British colonies.
  Because: Many members of the International Language Society are selected from English-spoken countries.
  从上面可以看出,最初的三个推展句是和关键词an international language一致的。第四句和主题句不统一,尽管第四句会成为另一主题句(Many Pakistanis speak English)很好的推展句。第五句说服力不强。
  当然,在写成段落时,没有必要在每个句子开头写上 "because",但是,在动笔展开句子时,头脑里要想着这个词,这种检验方法能帮助你把注意力集中在某个重心,围绕主题思想层层展开。

1. 列举法(details)
  作者运用列举法,是通过列举一系列的论据对topic sentence中摆出的论点进行广泛、全面地陈述或解释,列举的顺序可以按照所列各点内容的相对重要性、时间、空间等进行。

  Yesterday was one of those awful days for me when everything I did went wrong. First, I didn't hear my alarm clock and arrived late for work. Then, I didn't read my diary properly and forgot to get to an important meeting with my boss. During the coffee break, I dropped my coffee cup and spoilt my new skirt. At lunch time, I left my purse on a bus and lost all the money that was in it. After lunch, my boss was angry because I hadn't gone to the meeting. Then I didn't notice a sign on a door that said "Wet Paint" and so I spoilt my jacket too. When I got home I couldn't get into my flat because I had left my key in my office. So I broke a window to get in and cut my hand.
  根据本段主题句中的关键词组everything I did went wrong,作者列举了8点内容,分别由first, then, during the coffee break, after lunch time等连接词语引出,使得该文条理清楚、脉络分明、内容连贯。
  常用于列举法的过渡连接词有:for one thing , for another, finally, besides, moreover, one another , still another, first, second, also等。

2. 举例法(example)
  作者通过举出具体事例来阐述、说明主题句的内容,严格地讲,举例法也是列举法的一种,它们的区别在于:列举法侧重罗列事实,所列事实力求全面;而举例法侧重通过举出典型事例来解释作者观点,且事例可多可少。
  我们来看下面这个用举例法展开的段落。

  There are many different forms of exercises to suit different tastes. For example, those who enjoy competitive sports may take up ball games. For another example, if they prefer to exercise alone, they can have a run or take a walk in the morning or in the evening. Besides, people can go swimming in the summer and go skating in the winter. In short, no matter what their interests are, people can always find more than one sports that are suitable to them.

  本段采用了三个事例来说明主题句中的关键词组different forms of exercises,这三个例子分别由连接词for example, for another example 和 besides引出,最后由引导的结尾句总结全段内容。
  举例法中常用的连接词有:for example (instance), one example is, besides, furthermore, moreover, in addition等。

3. 叙述法(narration)
  叙述法发展段落主要是按照事物本身的时间或空间的排列顺序,通过对一些特有过渡连接词的使用,有层次分步骤地表达主题句的一种写作手段。用这种方法展开段落,作者能够清楚连贯地交待事物的本末,从而可以使读者可以清晰、完整地理解文章的含义,例如:

  In the flat opposite, a woman heard the noise outside. When she looked out through the window, she discovered that her neighbor was threatened by someone. She immediately called the police station. In answer to the call, a patrol police car arrived at the scene of the crime quickly. Three policemen went inside the flat at once, and others guarded outside the building to prevent anyone from escaping.

  这段是按照事物发展的先后顺序,叙述从发现案情、报警、到警察赶到、包围现场的过程。全文脉络清晰,叙述的层次感强,结构紧凑。
  常用于叙述法中的过渡连接词有:first, an the beginning, to start with, after that, later, then, afterwards, in the end, finally等。

4. 对比法或比较法(comparison & contrast)
  将同类的事物按照某种特定的规则进行比较分析是一种常用的思维方法。通过对比,更容易阐述所述对象之间的异同和优缺点,例如:
  The heart of an electronic computer lies in its vacuum tubes, or transistors. Its electronic circuits work a thousand times faster than the nicer cells in the human brain. A problem that might take a human being a long time to solve can be solved by a computer in one minute.
  在这段文字上, 作者为了突出电子计算机运行速度之快,首先将它与人脑进行了比较, "-- a thousand times faster than --" ;而后,又将这一概念具体到了 "a problem"上,通过对比使读者从 "-- a long time -- in one minute"上有更加直观的认识。
  常用于对本法或比较法上的过渡连接词有:than, compared with等。

5. 分类法(classification)
  在阐述某一概念的段落中,常用分类法。通过对概念中所包括的事物进行分门别类,分别加以叙述,使读者有更为清晰的认识,如:
  Ever since humans have lived on the earth, they have made use of various forms of communication. Generally, this expression of thoughts and feelings has been in the form of oral speech. When there is a language barrier, communication is accomplished through sign language in which motions stand for letters, words and ideas. Tourists and the people unable to hear or speak have had to resort to this form of expression. Many of these symbols of whole words are very vivid and exact and can be used internationally; spelling, however, cannot. Body language transmits ideas or thoughts by certain actions, either intentionally or unintentionally. A nod signifies approval, while shaking the head indicates a negative reaction. Other forms of nonlinguistic language can be found in signal flags, Morse code, and picture signs.
  在该段中为了说明topic sentence中的 "various forms of communication",作者将其分为oral speech, sign language, body language及other forms of nonlinguistic language,并逐加阐述。
  采用这种方法的段落并没有标志突出的连接词,所述各项均为平行并列关系,所以没有明显的主次之分。

6. 因果分析法(cause and effect)
  在阐述某一现象的段落中,常采用因果分析法。例如:
  The role of women in today's society is changing. One reason is that women have begun to assert themselves as independent people through the women's movement. Also, women are aware of the alternatives to staying at home. Another reason is that increasing numbers of women who enter new fields and interests serve as role models for other women. Moreover, men are becoming more conscious of the abilities of women and have begun to view their independence positively.
  本段中,主题句提出了一种社会现象,推展句则对产生这种现象的原因作出各种解释。 常用于因果分析法的连接词有:because, so, as a result等。

7. 定义法(definition)
  在科普文章的写作中,定义法是必不可少的。通过下定义,可以使读者对该事物有一个更直接的认识。
  Automation refers to the introduction of electronic control and automation operation of productive machinery. It reduces the human factors, mental and physical, in production, and is designed to make possible the manufacture of more goods with fewer workers. The development of automation in American industry has been called the "Second Industrial Revolution".
  这一段文字使我们了解了 "automation" 和 "Second Industrial Revolution" 两个概念,分别由 "refers to" 和 "been called" 引出。
  常出现在定义法中的词语有:refer to, mean, call等。

8. 重复法(repetition)
  句子的一部分反复出现在段落中,这就是重复法。它往往造成一种步步紧逼的气氛,使文章结构紧凑,有感染力。比如:
  Since that time, which is far enough away from now, I have often thought that few people know what secrecy there is in the young, under terror. I was in mortal terror of the young man who wanted my heart and liver; I was in mortal terror of my interlocutor with the iron leg; I was in mortal terror of myself, from whom an awful promise had been extracted; --
  该段中反复应用了I was in mortal terror of …我经常处于恐怖之中。
  以上, 我们结合具体文章讨论了展开段落的几种方法。在实际写作中,我们往往不必拘泥于一种写作方法,而是将若干方法穿插在一起,使文章有声有色。

结尾段
  我们知道文章的开头很重要,因为好的开头可以吸引读者、抓住读者的注意力。同样,文章的结尾也很重要,好的结尾会使读者对全文的中心思想留下深刻的印象,可以增添文章的效果和说服力,让人深思,回味无穷。确切地说,结尾的作用就是概括全文内容,进一步强调或肯定文章的中心思想,使读者加深印象;有时也用于展望未来,提出今后方向或令人深思的问题给读者留下回味和思考的余地。
  但是,如何才能写好英文短文的结尾呢? 下面就介绍几种写结尾段最常用的方法:

  1.重复中心思想: 回到文章开头阐明的中心思想或主题句上,达到再次肯定和强调的效果。
  (例1)A sense of humor is really one of the keys to happiness. It gives zest to life to make it worth living.
  (例2)With all these benefits, it is no wonder that sports and games have now become more popular with people than ever.

  2.作出结论: 文章最后用几句话概括全文内容,并进一步肯定文章的中心思想或作者的观点。
  (例1)In conclusion, a good teacher-student relationship can be mutual beneficial. The students gain knowledge eagerly and enjoyably, and the teacher gains satisfaction from his job.
  (例2)On the whole there are more advantages than disadvantages in the use of TV. Yet different people may have different attitude toward TV. But we must realize that television in itself is neither good nor bad. Its value to people and society depends on how we look at it.

  3.应用引语: 用格言、谚语或习语总结全文,既言简意赅又有更强的说服力。
  (例1)If you have anything to do, try to do it yourself, for that is the safest way to
permanent success. Remember the famous saying. "God helps those who help themselves."
  (例2)If we stick to studies day after day, there is nothing that can't be achieved. As an old saying goes: "Constant dropping of water wears away a stone."

  4.用反问结尾: 虽然形式是问句,但意义却是肯定的,具有明显的强调作用,引起读者思考。
  (例1)Therefore, listening skills must be consciously improved. Since it is such an important means of learning and communication, why should we not develop this ability as far as possible?
  (例2)So,what can we benefit from wealth if we do not have health?

  5.提出展望或期望: 表示对将来的展望或期待读者投入行动。
  (例1)I am sure that Chinese will become one of the most important languages in the world in the next century. As China will open further to the outside world the language is sure to be spread world widely.
  (例2) If everyone has developed good manners, people will form a more harmonious relation. If everyone behaves considerately towards others and social ethics people will live in a better world. With the general mood of society improved, there will be a progress of civilization.
  以上介绍了几种写结尾段最常用的方法,但到底选择何种方法结尾还得根据文体来决定。平铺直叙的记叙文,往往在故事或事实情节讲完时文章也就自然结束了,而说理性和逻辑性较强的说明文和议论**应有一个正式的结尾。希望以上介绍的几种方法能对大家写好结尾有所帮助。

  首先,一个段落必须有一个中心即主题思想,该中心由主题句特别是其中的题旨来表达。整个段落必须紧扣这个主题(stick or hold to the topic),这就是段落的统一性(unity)。其次,一个段落必须有若干推展句,使主题思想得到充分展开,从而给读者一个完整的感觉,这就是完整性(completeness or adequateness)。再者,一个段落不是杂乱无章的,而是有机的组合,句子的排列顺序必须合乎逻辑,从一个句子到另一个句子的过渡必须流畅(smooth),这就是连贯性(coherence)。下面我们就对这三个标准分别加以说明。

1. 统一性
  一个段落内的各个句子必须从属于一个中心,任何游离于中心思想之外的句子都是不可取的。请看下例:
  Joe and I decided to take the long trip we'd always wanted across the country. We were like young kids buying our camper and stocking it with all the necessities of life. Bella bakes the best rhubarb pie. We started out in early spring from Minneapolis and headed west across the northern part of the country. We both enjoyed those people we met at the trailer park. Joe received a watch at his retirement dinner. To our surprise, we found that we liked the warm southern regions very much, and so we decided to stay here in New Mexico.
  本段的主题句是段首句,controlling idea(中心思想)是take the long trip across the country。文中出现两个irrelevant sentences,一个是Bella bakes the best rhubarb pie,这一段是讲的是Joe and I,中间出现一个Bella是不合适的。还有,Joe received a watch at his retirement dinner这一句更是与主题句不相关。考生在四级统考的作文卷上常常因为造出irrelevant sentences(不相关语句)而丢分,值得引起注意。再看一个例子:
  My name is Roseanna, and I like to keep physically fit. I used to weigh two hundred pounds, but I joined the YMCA for an exercise class and diet program. In one year I lost eighty pounds. I feel much better and never want to have that much weight on my five-feet frame again. I bought two new suitcases last week. Every day I practice jogging three miles, swimming fifteen laps, lifting twenty-pound weights and playing tennis for one hour. My mother was a premature baby.
  本段的controlling idea 是like to deep physically fit,但段中有两个irrelevant sentences,一个是I bought two new suitcases last week,另一个是My mother was a premature baby。

英语经典句型
The sight of such a beautiful girl took Tony's breath away.
看到如此美丽的女孩,他目瞪口呆。
Everyone has a skeleton in his closet.
人人都有不可告人之事。
Don't count your chickens before they hatch.
小鸡孵出之后再算数。
Time heals all wounds. 时间会治疗一切创伤
A little knowledge is dangerous.
一知半解最危险
Your hardworking will be rewarded by God one day. God is equal to everyone!
你所付出的一切将会得到上帝的报答,上帝是公平的
Rome wasn't built in a day. Work harder and practice more.
冰冻三尺,非一日之寒。更加努力地学习,更加勤奋地操练
History repeats itself.
历史会重演.
No sweet without sweat.
不流汗就没有幸福。
A rolling stone gathers no moss.
滚石不生苔:转业部聚财。现在美国人常用来表示一个人活动就能保持活泼
Everyone has a skeleton in his closet.
人人都有不可告人之事。
To teach a fish how to swim.
孔子面前卖文章
The grass is greener on the other side of the fence.
隔岸风景好;邻家芳草绿。
When you understand the cultural background, you can better use the language.
当你理解了文化背景,你就能更好地运用语言。
I would also like to learn more about the culture behind the language.
我想学习和了解更多的关于语言背后文化的知识
Great minds think alike.
英雄所见略同。
The way to lean a language is to practice speaking it as often as possible.
学习一门语言的方法就是要尽量多地练习说
Relax! Be patient and enjoy yourself. learning foreign languages should be fun.
放松点!要有耐心,并让自己快乐!学习外语应该是乐趣无穷的
Learning any language takes a lot of effort. But don't give up.
学习任何语言都需要花费很多努力,但不要放弃。
Fails to look interviewer in the eye.
不敢正视。
Condemns past emloyers.
谴责以前的雇主/老板。
Is unwilling to start at the bottom: expects too much too soon.
不愿从基层干起:要求太多。
Overemphasizes money: is interested only in the best dollar offer.
过分强调钱:只对最佳报酬感兴趣。
Has limp, weak handshake.
握手时软弱无力。
Lacks confidence and poise: is nervous and ill at ease.
缺乏沉着,自信:心神不宁
Is not prepared for interview.
对面试无准备
Lacks planning for career: has no purpose or goals.
对自己的事业没有安排:没有目标和理想
Lacks knowledge or experience。
缺乏知识或经验。
Has a poor personal appearance.
衣着形象不佳。
I like to see a job done quickly.
我喜欢速战速决。
I expect others to perform beyond their capacities.
我对别人的能力期望过高。
I tend to drive myself too hard.
我有时会对自己要求过于严格。
What are your greatest weaknesses?
你的最大弱点是什么?
I can organize my time efficiently.
我的工作效率高。
I work well with others.
我和他人容易共事。
I'm willing to make decisions.
我能当机立断。
What are your greatest strengths?
你的最大优点是什么?
As long as my position here allows me to lean and to advance at a pace consistent with my abilities.
只要我的职务随能力增长相应提高。
If we hire you, how long will you stay with us?
如果我们雇佣你,你打算跟我们工作多久?
My academic preparation, job skills, and enthusiasm about working for the firm.
我的学识,工作技能及对工作的热情。
It pays to help others. 帮助别人是值得的。

实习找工作必杀句型一
1. Mature,dynamic and honest.思想成熟、精明能干、为人诚实。
  2. Excellent ability of systematical management.有极强的系统管理能力。
  3.Ability to work independently,mature and resourceful.能够独立工作、思想成熟、应变能力强。
  4.A person with ability plus flexibility should apply.需要有能力及适应力强的人。
  5.A stable personality and high sense of responsibility. 个性稳重、具高度责任感。
  6.Work well with a multi-cultural and diverse work force. 能够在不同文化和工作人员的背景下出色地工作
  7. Bright,aggressive applicants.反应快、有进取心的应聘者。
  8. Ambitious attitude essential.有雄心壮志。
  9.Initiative,independent and good communication skill. 积极主动、独立工作能力强,并有良好的交际技能
  10.Willing to work under pressure with leardership quality.愿意在压力下工作,并具领导素质。
  11. Willing to assume responsibilities.应聘者须勇于挑重担。
12.Mature,self-motivated and strong interpersonal skills. 思想成熟、上进心强,并具极丰富的人际关系技巧。
  13.Energetic,fashion-minded person.精力旺盛、思想新潮。
  14. With a pleasant mature attitude.开朗成熟。
  15. Strong determination to succeed.有获得成功的坚定决心。
  16. Strong leadership skills.有极强的领导艺术。
  17.Ability to work well with others.能够同他人一道很好地工作。
18. Highly-motivated and reliable person with excellent health and pleasant personality. 上进心强又可靠者,并且身体健康、性格开朗。
重要短语及典型句型
1) ... not so much...... as (but) ... 与其说……还不如说……
(2) ... not so much that.....as (but) that...... 与其说……还不如说……
(3) ... not so much as..... (=not even) 甚至于不……,连……也不……
(4) ... might as well ... as..... 与其说……还不如说……
例1:He is not so much a teacher as a scholar.
She is not so much tall I see as thin.
译文:与其说他是老师,还不如说是学者。(注意翻译时动作的对象)
例2:It wasn't so much his appearance I liked as his personality.
It's not so much his money I love as himself.
译文:与其说我喜欢他的外表,不如说我喜欢他的品格。
例3:It's not so much that I don't want to come but I just haven't got the time.
It's not so much that he want to do work but he want to sleep.
译文:倒不是因为我不想来,而是我根本没有时间。
例4:He didn't so much as say thank you after all we'd done for him.
He didnot so much as say sorry that he had treaded me
译文:我们为他干了那么多事,他甚至连谢谢都没有说一声。
例5:You might as well throw your money into the sea as lend it to him.
I might as well spend this count of money as save up it
译文:与其将钱借给他,还不如把钱丢进大海。(注意翻译时动作的对象)
[注意]:more ... than ...
1) she is more beautiful than her sister. 她比她姐姐漂亮。
2) George is more intelligent than aggressive. 与其说乔治言行放肆,不如说他聪颖过人。
以上第1)句是more... than结构的一般用法,即在两个不同的事物之间就同一方面作比较;而第2)句是就同一个人的两个不同方面作比较。因此要译成“与其说……还不如说……”。
more...than结构在上述1) 2)两句中的用法也适用于less ... than结构,得出相反的含义:
例如:
1) John is less daring than quick-witted. 与其说约翰胆大,不如说他脑子灵活。
2) George was less intelligent than aggressive. 与其说乔治聪颖过人,不如说他言行放肆。

2.几个不定代词的固定搭配:
have none of: 不参加;不准;不接受
I will have none of your stupid ideas! 我才不接受你那愚蠢的想法!
He was offered a job but he said he’d have none of it. 他有一个工作机会,但他说他不接受。
none but (=nothing but): 只有 (=only)
None but the brave deserves the fair. 只有英雄才配得上美人。
She chose none but the best. 她只选最好的。
She is nothing but a child. 她只不过是个孩子。
none other than: (表示惊讶)不是别人,正是…… (= no one else but)
It’s none other than Tom! We thought you were in Africa.
none the +比较级词+ for: 毫不,一点也不
He spent 2 weeks in hospital but he’s none the better for it.
他在医院里待了两个星期,但一点也没好转。
My car is none the worse for wear. 我的车子一点也没有损耗。
none the wiser: 不知情
If we take only one piece of cake, mother will be none the wiser.
如果我们只拿一小块蛋糕,母亲是不会知道的。
none too: (在形容词或副词前) 不太;一点都不
The service in this restaurant is none too fast. 这家旅馆的服务一点效率都没有。
anything but: ①除---之外什么都(此处的but等于except)②决不(=not at all)
I eat anything but (except) fish. 除了鱼,我什么都吃。
She is anything but a good cook. 她决不是个好厨师。(即:除了好厨师,她什么都是。)
anything of: ①(疑问句/条件句)一点点;②(否定句)一点也(没有)
Is he anything of a poet? 他有一点点诗人的样子吗?
I haven’t seen anything of him lately. 最近我没有见过他。
for anything: (否定句)(给什么都)不,决不
I won’t go there for anything. 我决不去那里。
or anything: (意味着还有其他的可能性)
If Bernard wants to call me or anything, I’ll be here all day.
如果伯纳德要找我或什么的,我整天都会在这儿。
if anything: 若有任何不同的话
If anything, my new job is harder than my old one.
要说有什么不同的话,我的新工作反而比旧工作要难些。
or something: 或什么的(表示说话者不能肯定)
She is a stewardess or something. 她是空姐或什么的。
something like: 有点像,大约
An airship is shaped something like a cigar. 飞船的形状有点像雪茄。
something of a...: 多少有点,有几分像,略懂
he’s something of a book collector. 他有几分像书籍收藏家。
something to / in: (叙述等)有些道理
There’s something to / in what you say; I’ll take your advice.
你说的有些道理,我会接受你的建议
have / be something to do with: 与……有关
I think Guy Fawkes had / was something to do with a plan to blow up the bridge.
我想盖佛克跟图谋炸毁桥梁有关。
nothing but (= none but = only): 仅仅,只不过
We could see nothing but fog. 除了雾之外我们什么也看不见。
for nothing: ①免费的; ②徒劳的; ③无缘无故的
She got the ticket for nothing. 她免费得到那张票。
All our preparation for nothing! No one’s even come to the party.
我们为宴会所作的准备都白费了! 连一个人都没来。
They quarreled for nothing. 他们无缘无故地争吵。
make nothing of: (常和can一起用)不理解;不重视,轻视 (= think nothing of)
I could make nothing of the passage. 我不理解这篇文章。
He makes / thinks nothing of working ten hours a day. 他不在乎一天工作十小时。
to say nothing of: 更不用说(= not to mention / without mentioning)
Three people were badly hurt, to say nothing of damage to the building.
三个人受了重伤,建筑物的损害更不用说了。
have nothing to do with: 与……无关
I have nothing to do with the accident. 我与这场事故无关。
nothing if not: 格外地;非常地 (= very / much / extremely)
He was nothing if not clever. (= He was very clever.) 他格外聪明。
nothing of: 无……的部分;无……的气质
There was nothing of the lady in her behavior. 她的举止根本没有淑女的气质。
区别:
all but 几乎,差一点,除……以外其余都是
but for要不是
but that+从句:若不是……
例1:She all but fainted when she heard the news.
译文:她听到这一消息时几乎晕倒了。
注:此句中a11 but意为nearly,almost。
试对比:
All but the little children thought that the trip was exciting.
译文:除了小孩,大家都认为这次旅行是激动人心的。
此句中all but意为a11 except。
例2:But for the rain we should have a pleasant journey.
译文:要不是下雨,我们的旅行本来是愉快的。
例3:He would have helped us but that he was short of money at the time.
译文:若不是他那时缺钱,他是会帮助我们的。
注1).but that引导的从句中谓语用陈述语气。2).but that有灵活的译法。如:Nothing would satisfy that child but that I place her on my lap.(那孩子什么都不要,只要我把她抱在怀里。)
3.“名词+or+名词”结构中or后的名词是同位语,应译为“即……;或者称……”
例1:Moreover, technology includes techniques, or ways to do things, as well as the machines that may or may not be necessary to apply them.
译文:再者,除机器外技术还包括技艺,即制作方法,而动用这些技艺并不一定都需要机器。
4.“only + to do”意为“……,结果却……”,即表示与句子谓语动作的目的相反的结果。
例1: They don't have to pay for expensive seats at the theatre, the cinema or the opera, only
to discover, perhaps, that the show is disappointing.
译文:他们不必花钱去戏院、电影院或歌剧院买价格很贵的票,(如果去了,)结果却可能发现,所演的节目令人失望
例2: They hurried there only to find the meeting canceled.
译文:他们匆匆忙忙赶到那儿,结果却发现会议被取消了。
5.not more / -er than 与 no more / -er than 结构
比较:
John is not better than Tom.
John is no better than Tom.
前一句表示“约翰不比汤姆好”,属于普通的比较结构;后一例用了no 情况就不同了。no better than 相当于as bad as,含义是两人一样坏。这里,“no + 形容词或副词比较级 + than”所表示的可以说是该形容词或副词的反意。
例如: no richer than = as poor as 和……一样穷
no bigger than = as small as 和……一样小
no later than = as early as 和……一样早
同样地:
I have not taken more than six courses this semester.
I have taken no more than six courses this semester.
前一句的含义是本学期选的课不多于六门;后一句的含义是只选了六门。强调“少”。
上述结构与表示前后都否定的no more...than (= not...any more than)又有所不同:
例:A whale is no more a fish than a horse is.(鲸和马同样不是鱼。)
另外,在某些结构中,单独使用more than 也能表示否定概念:
例1:That is more than I can tell. 我简直不能说。
例2:My trip to Beijing is more than sightseeing. 我去北京不仅仅是旅游观光而已。
6.no more...than... (= not...any more than) 和……—样都不……(表示前后都否定)
例1:The heart is no more intelligent than the stomach, for they are both controlled by the brain. 心脏和胃一样都无智力可言,因为它们都是由大脑控制的。
例2:There is no reason they should limit how much vitamin you take, any more than they can limit how much water you drink.
译文:他们没有理由限制你服用多少维他命,就像他们不能限制你喝多少水一样。
例3:More and more Afro-Americans see him as a tricky enemy who has no more love for them than he has for the Congolese.
译文:越来越多的美国黑人认识到他是个诡计多端的敌人。他仇视美国黑人,正像他仇视刚果人民一样。(直译:…,他不爱美国黑人,正像他不爱刚果人一样。)
注释:not...any more than是no more...than的一种强调形式。
例如:
1) Jack is no more intelligent than John. (=Jack is not intelligent any more than John.)
杰克与约翰一样都不聪明。
2) A man can no more fly than a bird can speak. (=A man cannot fly any more than a bird can speak.) 人不会飞翔,就像鸟不会说话一样。
3) As a nation, the French are no more eager to 1earn about their wartime failings than are the Japanese. (=As a nation,the French are not eager to learn about their wartime failings any more than are the Japanese.)
作为一个国家,法国正如日本一样不积极地从他们的战争失败中吸取教训。
上述例句表明,no more...than并不表示比较,而是表示比喻,含有比喻意义的比较级用于否定时,than后面的从句不用否定式,但译成汉语时要用否定式。而与上述句型意义相反的是:no less...than,意为:“和……同样是……”。例如:
Human is no less an animal than a monkey is. 人和猴都是动物。
而no less than 的意思为:“简直是,实在是”,例如:
1) It is no less than blackmail to ask such a high price. 如此索要高价,简直是敲诈。
2) It is no less than a scandal. 这实在是一件丑闻。
7.not nearly (=by no means,far from) 远不
例1: The food supply will not increase nearly enough to match this, which means that we are heading into a crisis in the matter of producing and marketing food.
译文:食品供应将远远赶不上人口的增长,这就意味着我们在粮食的生产和购销方面正面临危机。
注:1) this是指上面提到的“到21世纪初世界人口将增加到60亿或70亿”。2) 又如:There are not nearly enough people here to do the job.(这里的人手远远不够承担这项工作。)
8.“更不用说”的表示法:
much less
still less
以上两短语引导的词组或从句,表示一种追加的否定,less是由little的比较级,所以这两个词组只能用于否定句中,可译为“更不用说,更不必说”。
to say nothing of
not to speak of
not to mention
let alone
这四个词组也意为 “更不用说”,也是一种追补的说法。但它们与much less和still less有所不同。这些词组可以随前一句的意思而定,即前一句是肯定,则追加的也是肯定意义;如果前一句是否定,则追加的是否定意义
例1:I could not agree to, much less participate in such proceedings.
译文:我不能同意这种行为,更谈不上参加这些行动了。
例2:He knows little of mathematics, and still less of chemistry.
译文:他几乎不懂数学,更不用说化学了。
例3:I did not even see him, still less (= much less) shake hands with him.
译文:我看也没有看见过他,哪里还谈得上同他握手呢?
例4:In old China, here was hardly any machine-building industry, to say nothing of an electronic industry.
译文:在旧中国,几乎没有什么机器制造工业,更不用说电子工业了。
例5:Sally takes singing and dancing lessons, to say nothing of swimming and tennis lessons.
译文:莎莉学了唱歌和舞蹈课,而且还学了游泳和网球课。
例6:At that time they could not afford the ordinary comforts of life, not to speak of luxuries.
译文:那时他连普通生活都不能维持,更不要说奢侈品了。
例7:They have three fine sons, not to speak of their two 1ovely daughters.
译文:他们有了三个好儿子,而且还有两个可爱的女儿。
例8:I don't know algebra or geometry,not to mention calculus.
译文:我连代数、几何都不懂,更不必说微积分了。
例9:A11 they have to do is press a button,and they can see plays, films, operas and shows of every kind, not to mention political discussions and the latest exciting football match.
译文:他们所要做的只是按一下电钮,就能看到各种戏剧、电影、歌剧和各式各样的演出,而且还能看到各种政治辩论和最近举行的激动人心的足球赛。
例10:I can't add two and two, let alone do fractions.
译文:我连2加2都不会,更不要说做分数题了。
注意:美国成语词典认为let alone只能用于追加的否定。但是,有的词典认为,该短语也可以引导追加的肯定。例如:There were five people in the car, let alone the luggage and the two dogs.
9.nothing else than 完全是,实在是
例1: What the man said was nothing else than nonsense.
译文:那人讲的话完全是一派胡言。
例2: Your success was due to nothing else than your own diligence.
译文:你的成功完全是由于你自己的勤奋。
10.It is not that...but that... 这不是说……,而是说……
例1: It is not that the scales in the one case, and the balance in the other, differ in the principles of their construction or manner of working; but that the latter is much finer apparatus and of course much more accurate in its measurement than the former.
译文:这并不是说在一种情况下所使用的磅秤和另一种情况下所用的天平在构造原理上或工作方式上存在差别,而是说与前者相比,后者是一种更精密得多的装置,因而在计量上必然更加准确。
11.can not...too... 再……也不过分
例1: We cannot be too careful of health. 我们无论如何注意健康也不为过。
例2: You cannot be too careful when you drive a car. 你开车时再小心也不过分。
例3: We can not be too faithful to our duties. 我们必须尽力忠于职守。
12.other...than... 或other than... 不同于,非;除了
例l: Plants which refine crude ores are often located in countries other than those in which the crude ores are mined.
译文:提炼矿石的厂房通常不是设在采矿石的国家而设在其它国家。
例2: Reactions other than the desired one often occur when reactants are brought together.
译文:当这些反应物放在一起时,常发生不希望有的一些反应。(即:…常发生与希望有的反应不同的反应。)
例3: All parts of the house other than the windows were in good condition.
译文:除了窗之外,屋子的其它部分都完好无损。
13. ... the last + n. + 不定式或定语从句:意为“…最不可能的……”
例1: She would be the last person to go along with the scheme.
译文:她可能会是最不同意这项计划的人。
例2: That's the last thing I'd expect you to do.
译文:那是我最不期望你做的事情。
14.It is asserted that...有人断言...
It is believed that... 据认为....,人们相信....
It is considered that...有人认为...
It is reported that...据报道...
It is said that...据说....
It is supposed that...据推测...
It is told that...据传...
It appears that看来似乎...,好像...
It is well known that...众所周知...
It is estimated that...据估计...
It was pointed out that...有人指出...
It is generally accepted that...人们通常认为...,一般认为...,大家公认...
It is alleged that...人们断言...
It is claimed that...有人主张...,人们要求...
It cannot be denied that...不可否认
It has been found that...实践证明
It is predicted that...据估计...,据预测...
It is suggested that...有人建议...
15.It goes without saying that... 不言而喻,……
例:It goes without saying that in order to speak good English, we must first of all learn good pronunciation.
译文:不言而喻,为了讲好英语,首先必须学好发音。
16.It is common knowledge that… 众所周知,……
例:It is common knowledge now that Chinese people are very intelligent.
译文:众所周知,中国人和很聪明。
17.It occurs to sb. that… (某人) 想起……
例1: It occurred to me suddenly that I had met him somewhere.
译文:我突然想起在什么地方见过他。
例2: It occurred to me that she was jealous of me.
译文:我突然发觉她嫉妒我。

不带任何脏字的英文骂人法
1,Hey!wise up!放聪明点好吗?
2,Put up or shut up.要么你就去做,不然就给我闭嘴
3,You eat with that mouth?你是用这张嘴吃饭的吗?言下之意是你的嘴那么脏,你还用它吃饭?
4,You are dead meat.你死定了。也可以说:“You are dead.”你完蛋了
5,Don't you dare!How dare you!你好大的胆子啊!
6,Don't push me around.不要摆布我。
7,You want to step outside?想到外去单挑吗?

让你的英文增色的好句子1. Time flies.
  时光易逝。
  2. Time is money.
  一寸光阴一寸金。
  3. Time and tide wait for no man.
  岁月无情;岁月易逝;岁月不待人。
  4. Time tries all.
  时间检验一切。
  5. Time tries truth.
  时间检验真理。
  6. Time past cannot be called back again.
  光阴一去不复返。
  7. All time is no time when it is past.
  光阴一去不复返。
  8. No one can call back yesterday;Yesterday will not be called again.
  昨日不复来。
  9. Tomorrow comes never.
  切莫依赖明天。
  10.One today is worth two tomorrows.
  一个今天胜似两个明天。
  11.The morning sun never lasts a day.
  好景不常;朝阳不能光照全日。
  12.Christmas comes but once a year.
  圣诞一年只一度。
  13.Pleasant hours fly past.
  快乐时光去如飞。
  14.Happiness takes no account of time.
  欢娱不惜时光逝。
  15.Time tames the strongest grief.
  时间能缓和极度的悲痛。
  16.The day is short but the work is much.
  工作多,光阴迫。
  17.Never deter till tomorrow that which you can do today.
  今日事须今日毕,切勿拖延到明天。
  18.Have you somewhat to do tomorrow,do it today.
  明天如有事,今天就去做。
  19.To him that does everything in its proper time,one day is worth three.
  事事及时做,一日胜三日。
  20.To save time is to lengthen life.
  节省时间就是延长生命。
  21.Everything has its time and that time must be watched.
  万物皆有时,时来不可失。
  22.Take time when time cometh,lest time steal away.
  时来必须要趁时,不然时去无声息。
  23.When an opportunity is neglected,it never comes back to you.
  机不可失,时不再来;机会一过,永不再来。
  24.Make hay while the sun shines.
  晒草要趁太阳好。
  25.Strike while the iron is hot.
  趁热打铁。
  26.Work today,for you know not how much you may be hindered tomrrow.
  今朝有事今朝做,明朝可能阻碍多。
  27.Punctuality is the soul of business.
  守时为立业之要素。
  28.Procrastination is the thief of time.
  因循拖延是时间的大敌;拖延就是浪费时间。
  29.Every tide hath ist ebb.
  潮涨必有潮落时。
  30.Knowledge is power.
  知识就是力量。
  31.Wisdom is more to be envied than riches.
  知识可羡,胜于财富。
  32.Wisdom is better than gold or silver.
  知识胜过金银,
  33.Wisdom in the mind is better than money in the hand.
  胸中有知识,胜于手中有钱。
  34.Wisdom is a good purchase though we pay dear for it.
  为了求知识,代价虽高也值得。
  35.Doubt is the key of knowledge.
  怀疑是知识之钥。
  36.If you want knowledge,you must toil for it.
  若要求知识,须从勤苦得。
  37.A little knowledge is a dangerous thing.
  浅学误人。
  38.A handful of common sense is worth a bushel of learning.
  少量的常识,当得大量的学问。
  39.Knowledge advances by steps and not by leaps.
  知识只能循序渐进,不能跃进。
  40.Learn wisdom by the follies of others.
  从旁人的愚行中学到聪明。
  41.It is good to learn at another man’s cost.
  前车可鉴。
  42.Wisdom is to the mind what health is to the body.
  知识之于精神,一如健康之于肉体。
  43.Experience is the best teacher.
  经验是最好的教师。
  44.Experience is the father of wisdom and memory the mother.
  经验是知识之父,记忆是知识之母。
  45.Dexterity comes by experience.
  熟练来自经验。
  46.Practice makes perfect.
  熟能生巧。
  47.Experience keeps a dear school,but fools learn in no other.
  经验学校学费高,愚人旁处学不到。
  48. Experience without learning is better than learning without experience.
  有经验而无学问,胜于有学问而无经验。
  49.Wit once bought is worth twice taught.
  由经验而得的智慧,胜于学习而得的智慧;一次亲
  身的体会,胜过两次的教师教导。
  50.Seeing is believing.
  百闻不如一见。
  51.Business is the salt of life.
  事业是生命之盐。
  52.Business before pleasure.
  事业在先,享乐在后。
  53.Business makes a man as well as tries him.
  事业可以考验人,也可以造就人。
  54.Business neglected is business lost.
  忽视职业便是放弃职业。
  55.Never think yourself above business.
  勿自视过高;不要眼高手低;永远不要认为自己是大
  才小用。
  56.Business may be troublesome,but idleness is pernicious.
  事业虽扰人,懒惰害更大。
  57.He that thinks his business below him will always be above his business.
  自命大才小用,往往眼高手低。
  58.Do business,but be not a slave to it.
  要做事,但不要做事务的奴隶。
  59.Everybody’s business is nobody’s business.
  众人的事就是无人过问的事。
  60.Work makes the workman.
  勤工出巧匠。
  61.Better master one than engage with ten.
  会十事,不如精一事。
  62.A work ill done must be twice done.
  首次做不好,必须重新搞。
  63.They who cannot do as they would,must do as they can.
  不能如愿而行,也须尽力而为。
  64.If you would have a thing well done,do it yourself.
  想把事情来做好,就得亲自动手搞。
  65.He that doth most at once doth least.
  什么都想一次做完,结果一件也做不完;贪多嚼不
  烂。
  66.Do as most men do and men will speak well of thee.
  照大多数人那样干,人们会把你称赞。
  67.What may be done at any time will be done at no time.
  在任何时候都可做的事情,总是在任何时候都不
  做的事情。
  68.Better late than never.
  迟做总比不做好。
  69.Whatever is worth doing at all is worth doing well.
  凡是值得做的事,就值得做好。
  70.The shortest answer is doing the thing.
  最简短的回答就是一个“干”字。
  71.Action is the proper fruit of knowledge.
  行动是知识之佳果。
  72.Finished labours are pleasant.
  完成工作是一乐。
  73.It is lost labour to sow where there is no soil.
  没有土壤,播种也是徒劳。
  74.It is right to put everything in its proper use.
  凡事都应用得其所。
  75.Affairs that are done by due degrees are soon ended.
  按部就班,事情很快就做完。
  76.All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy.
  只工作,不玩耍,聪明小孩也变傻。
  77.Work bears witness who does well.
  工作能证明谁做的好。
  78.It is not work that kills,but worry.
  工作不会伤身,伤身乃是忧虑。
  79.He that will not work shall not eat.
  不工作者不得食。
  80.Business is business.
   公事公办。
  81.Deliberate slowly,执行 promptly.
  慢慢酌量,快快行动。
  82.Put your shoulder to the wheel.
  努力工作。
  83.Never do things by halves.
  做事不要半途而废。
  84.In for a penny,in for a pound.
  做事一开头,就要做到底;一不做,二不休。
  85.Many hands make quick work.
  人多干活快。
  86.Many hands make light work.
  众擎易举。
  87.A bad workman quarrels with his tools.
  技术拙劣的工人抱怨自己的工具。
  88.Diligence is the mohter of success.
  勤奋是成功之母。
  89.Idleness is the root of all evil.
  懒惰乃万恶之源。
  90.Care and diligence bring luck.
  谨慎和勤奋带来好运。
  91.Diligence is the mother of good fortune.
  勤勉是好运之母。
  92.Industry is fortune’s right hand,and frugality her left.
  勤勉是幸运的右手,世俭是幸运的左手。
  93.Idleness is the key of beggary.
  懒惰出乞丐。
  94.No root,no fruit.
  无根就无果。
  95.Idle people (folks) have the most labour (take the most pains).
  懒人做工作,越懒越费力。
  96.Sloth is the key of poverty.
  惰能致贫。
  97.Sloth turneth the edge of wit.
  懒散能磨去才智的锋芒。
  98.An idle brain is the devil’s workshop.
  懒汉的头脑是魔鬼的工厂。
  99.The secret of wealth lieth in the letters SAVE.
  节俭是致富的秘诀。
  100. An idle youth,a needy age.
  少壮不努力,老大徒伤悲。

表达鼓励的10个语句
1、Come on,be a man!来吧,像个男子汉!
2、That's better than I can do. 你比我做得好多了。
3、I believe you can improve it. 我相信你能做得更好。
4、I think you should go ahead. 我认为你应该继续干下去。
5、If at first you dont't succeed,try,try,and try again. 如果一开始你没成功,尝试,尝试,再尝试!
6、You have my whole-hearted support. 我全心全意支持你。
7、There is no reason to feel discouraged. 没有必要感到灰心。
8、The longest road must have an end. 你总会有出头之日的。
9、Keep it up!不要泄气!
10、I'll be always there for you!我永远支持你!
经典商务英语套用语
    1. we are enclosing herewith....
    2.Enclosed please find........
    3.We shall be glad if you kindly........
    4. We have the pleasure of inteoducing ourselves to you as ....
    5. With reference to your letter dater /of ...........
    6This is to certify that .......
    7.This is to acknowledge receipt of your letter dated ...repquesting us to...
    8.in response to youe letter of ...enquiring for...
    9. In compliance with your request........
    10. we should be much obliged if you would....
    11.we should appreciate it if you will let us know......
    12.we shall appreciate your doing...
    13.This is inconfirmation of ....
    14.Would you please quote us a price on....
    15.Youe order will be greatly appreciated...
    16. Thank you for your request of ...
    17.we thank you for your enquiry of ....
    18.To comply with your request,we are quoting you as follows ...
    19.In reply ,we very much regret to state that ...
    20.It is understood that .....
    21,We wish to order from your for...as itemized in your quotation..
    22.We heareby place an order with you for...
    23.This Agreement is entered into between the parties concerned on terms and conditions set forth as bvelow:
    24.Party A hereby agrees to appoint Party B to act as its Agent to sell...
    25.Party B shall undertake the sales of the aforesaid commodity during the validity of this Agreement.
    26.In case Party B fails to ... without giving sufficient reasons acceptable to Party A, Party A shall have the right to .....without being bound by this Agreement.
    27. It is mutually agreed that ...
    28.Party A agrees not to .....,except as provided in Article (8)
    29.Party A is not allowed to make any alternation without Party A’s permision.
    30.in consideration of the friendly relations between us ,....
    31.With regard to contract No.59, we agree to ...
    32.We trust you will see to it that ....
    33. If .../please let us know .
    34.we would be vety muvh interested in ...
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 楼主| 发表于 2009-4-21 22:32 | 显示全部楼层
发现自己好笨,整的这么长!呵呵 :loveliness:
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 楼主| 发表于 2009-4-21 22:33 | 显示全部楼层
发现自己好笨,整的这么长!呵呵 :loveliness:
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发表于 2009-4-22 11:27 | 显示全部楼层
哥们!你太狠了!
我复制了半天啊!!
红塔山!!
长白上!!!
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发表于 2009-4-22 13:42 | 显示全部楼层
收下,谢谢
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发表于 2009-5-2 15:06 | 显示全部楼层
非常感谢~~~
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发表于 2009-5-5 13:47 | 显示全部楼层

回复 楼主 billsincere 的帖子

楼主太有才了~~~~~
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发表于 2009-5-5 15:58 | 显示全部楼层
多谢了 很有用
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发表于 2009-5-5 20:49 | 显示全部楼层
楼主太帅了!!!崇拜!
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发表于 2009-6-11 00:09 | 显示全部楼层
多谢[em:38]
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