and, furthermore, more than that, also, likewise, moreover, in addition, what is more, for instance, for example
although, however, on the contrary, but, in spite of, nevertheless, yet, otherwise, despite
first, second, third, and so on, then, after, before, next
as a result, for, thus, because, for this reason, so, therefore, as, since, consequently, on account of
as a result, finally, therefore, accordingly, in short, thus, consequently, in conclusion, so, in brief, in a word
As far as I am concerned, the advantages of … outweigh its disadvantages.Nevertheless, the disadvantages of … is undeniable.
To sum up/ In general/ On the whole/ In brief/ In short/ In a word, it is true that … bring about both positive and negative results. But we can try our best to reduce the negative influence to the least extent.
Obviously, in every aspect, …
This diagram unfolds a clear comparison between…and…
As to the other three, though the growth rates were not so high, they were indeed remarkable and impressive.
下文中出现的 A,B, “...”(某事物), "sb"( somebody),
When it comes to ..., some think ...
There is a public debate today that ...
A is a commen way of ..., but is it a wise one?
Recentaly the problem has been brought into focus.
Now there is a growing awareness that...
It is time we explore the truth of ...
Nowhere in history has the issue been more visible.
... but that is only part of the history.
Another equally important aspect is ...
A is but one of the many effects. Another is ...
Besides, other reasons are...
Just imagine what would be like if...
It is reasonable to expect...
It is not surprising that...
... such as A,B,C and so on (so forth)
A good case in point is...
A particular example for this is...
One of the greatest early writers said ...
"Knowledge is power", such is the remard of ...
"......". That is how sb comment ( criticize/ praise...).
"......". How often we hear such words like there.
(先说故事主体),this story is not rare.
..., such delimma we often meet in daily life.
..., the story still has a realistic significance.
There are many reasons for ...
Why .... , for one thing,...
The answer to this problem involves many factors.
Any discussion about this problem would inevitably involves ...
The first reason can be obiviously seen.
Most people would agree that...
Some people may neglect that in fact ...
Others suggest that...
Part of the explanation is ...
The advantages for A for outweigh the disadvantages of...
Although A enjoys a distinct advantage ...
Indeed , A carries much weight than B when sth is concerned.
A maybe ... , but it suffers from the disadvantage that...
To understand the truth of ..., it is also important to see...
A study of ... will make this point clear
Certainly, B has its own advantages, such as...
I do not deny that A has its own merits.
>From what has been discussed above, we may safely draw
the conclusion that ...
In summary, it is wiser ...
One of the greatest early writers said ...
"Knowledge is power", such is the remard of ...
"......". That is how sb comment ( criticize/ praise...).
"......". How often we hear such words like there.
by Robert Collier
In every adversity there lies the seed of an equivalent advantage. In every defeat there is a lesson showing you how to win the victory next time.
by Ann Landers
Opportunities are usually disguised as hard work, so most people don't recognize them.
by Ralph Waldo Emerson
No one can cheat you out of ultimate success but yourselves.
Our greatest glory is not in never falling...
but in rising every time we fall.
To keep a lamp burning we have to keep putting oil in it.
Nothing is particularly hard if you divide it inuo small jobs.
Never, never, never, never give up.
In uhe middle of difficulty lies opportunity.
Those who aim at great deeds must suffer greatly.
There is no substitute for hard work.
The strongest of all warriors are these two- Time and Patience.
I'm a great believer in luck,
and I find the harder I work...
the more I have of it.
Success is the sum of small efforts, repeated day in and day out.
Ray A. Croc
Luck is a dividend of sweat. The more you sweat, the luckier you get.
You'll learn more about a road by traveling it...
than by consulting all the maps in the world.
Winning isn't everything...
but wanting to win is.
John F. Kennedy
We choose to go!to the moon and other things , oot because they are easy, but because they are hard.
The strong do what they will.
The weak do what they must.
Talent is God given--Be Humble.
Fame is man given-- Be Thankful.
Conceit is self given --Be Careful.
Do what you can , with what you have , with where you are.
Publilius Syrus Maxim
No one knows what he can do till he tries.
There is nothing so easy but that it becomes difficult when you do it reluctantly.
A wise man turns chance into good fortune.
Prosperity is a great teacher;
adversity is a greater.
No pains, no palm;
no thorns, no throne;
no gall , no glory;
no cross, no crown.
Even if you're on the right track, you'll get run over... if you just sit there.
Opportunity rarely knocks on your door.
Knock rather on opportunity's door if you ardently wish to enter.
It's not whether you get knocked down.
...It's whether you get up again.
An optimist sees an opportunity in every calamity;
a pessimist sees a calamity in every opportunity.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Nothing great was ever achieved without enthusiasm.
The will to do springs from the knowledge that we can do.
Few things are impossible to diligence and skill.
Lost time is never found again.
No problem can stand the assault of sustained thinking.
Victory belongs to the most persevering.
Leave no stone unturned.
Norman Vincent Peale
Plan your work for today and every day;
then work your plan.
Failure is only the opportunity to more intelligently begin again.
I start where the last man left off.
What the mind of man can conceive and believe,
the mind of a man can achieve.
Plough deep while sluggards sleep.
Henry David Thoreau
In the lone run men hit only what they aim at.
Luck is not chance...
Fortune's expensive smile is earned.
Genius is one percent inspiration and ninety-nine percent perspiration.
Imagination is more important than knowledge.
The great pleasure in life is doing what people say you cannot do.
I will prepare and some day my chance will come.
Whether you think you can or think you can't -- you are right.
Where there's a will there's a way.
There is no failure excepting no longer trying.
Luck is what happens when preparation meets opportunity.
1. In general, I don’t agree with
2. In my opinion, this point of view doesn’t hold water.
3. The chief reason why… is that…
4.There is no true that…
5. It is not true that…
6. It can be easily denied than…
7. We have no reason to believe that…
8. What is more serious is that…
9. But it is pity that…
10. Besides, we should not neglect that…
11. But the problem is not so simple. Therefore…
12. Others may find this to be true, but I believer that…
13. Perhaps I was question why…
14. There is a certain amount of truth in this, but we still have a problem with regard to…
15. Though we are in basic agreement with…,but
16. What seems to be the trouble is^
17. Yet differences will be found, that’s why I feel that…
18. It would be reasonable to take the view that …, but it would be foolish to claim that…
19. There is in fact on reason for us so believe that…
20. What these people fail to consider is that…
21. It is one thing to insist that… , it is quite another to show that …
22. Wonderful as A is , however, it has its own disadvantages too.
23. The advantages of B are much greater than A.
24. A’s advantage sounds ridiculous when B’s advantages are taken into consideration.
1. It has increased by three times as compared with that of 1998.
2. There is an increase of 20% in total this year.
3. It has been increased by a factor of 4since 1995.
4. It would be expected to increase 5 times.
5. The table shows a three times increase over that of last year.
6. It was decreased twice than that of the year 1996.
7. The total number was lowered by 10%.
8. It rose from 10-15 percent of the total this year.
9. Compared with 1997, it fell from 15 to 10 percent.
10. The number is 5 times as much as that of 1995.
11. It has decreased almost two and half times, compared with…
1.Everybody knows that…
2.It can be easily proved that…
3. It is true that…
4. No one can deny that
5. One thing which is equally important to the above mentioned is…
6. The chief reason is that…
7. We must recognize that…
8. There is on doubt that…
9. I am of the opinion that…
10. This can be expressed as follows;
11. To take …for an example…
12. We have reason to believe that
13. Now that we know that…
14. Among the most convincing reasons given, one should be mentioned…
15. The change in …largely results from the fact that
16. There are several causes for this significant growth in…,first …,second …,finally…
17. A number of factors could account for the development in…
18. Perhaps the primary reason is…
19. It is chiefly responsible of…
20. The reasons for…are complicated, And probably they are found in the fact…
21. Here are several possible reasons, excerpt that…
22. Somebody believes/argues/holds/insists/thinks that…
23. It is not simple to give the reason for this complicated phenomenon…
24. Different people observes it in different ways.
1. As the proverb says…
2. It goes without saying tan…
3. Generally speaking…
4. It is quite clear than because…
5. It is often said that …
6. Many people often ask such question:“…?”
7. More and more people have come to realize…
8. There is no doubt that…
9. Some people believe that…
10. These days we are often old that, but is this really the case?
11. One great man said that…
12. Recently the issue of… has been brought to public attention.
13. In the past several years there has been…
14. Now it is commonly held that… but I doubt whether…
15. Currently there is a widespread concern that…
16. Now people in growing number are coming to realize that…
17. There is a general discussion today about the issue of …
18. Faced with…, quite a few people argue that…, but other people conceive differently.
1. from this point of view…
2. in a word…
3. in conclusion…
4. on account of this we can find that…
5. the result is dependent on…
6. therefore, these findings reveal the following information:
7. thus, this is the reason why we must…
8. to sum up …
9. as far as…be concerned, I believe that…
10. It is obvious that…
11. There is little doubt that…
12. There is no immediate solution to the problem of …, but …might be helpful
13. None of the solutions is quite satisfactory. The problem should be examined in a new way.
14. It is high time that we put considerable emphasis on…
15. Taking into account all these factors, we may safely reach the conclustion that…
1. As it is described that…
2. It has been illustrated that…
3. It provides a good example of…
4. We may cite another instance of…
5. History man provides us with the examples of…
6. A number of further facts may be added…
7. The situation is not unique, it is typical of dozens I have heard.
8. A recent investigation indicate that…
9. According to the statistics provided …
10. According to a latest study, it can be predicted…
11. There is no sufficient evidence to show that…
12. All available evidence points to the fact that…
13. Examples given leads me to conclude that…
14. It reveals the unquestionable fact that…
15. The idea may be proved by facts…
16. All the facts suggest that…
17. No one can deny the fact that…
18. We may face the undeniable fact that…
1) A is to B what/ as C is to D(A之于B犹如C之于D).
2) Just as..., so...
3) A and B have sth in common.
4) A is similar to B.
5) The same is true of,The same can be said of(……也是如此).
6) The advantages of A are much greater than B.
7) compared with B, A has many advantages.
8) The advantages outweigh the disadvantages(利大于弊).
9) Wonderful as A is, however, it has its own disadvantages too.
10) Although A enjoys considerable advantage over..., it can not compete with B in...
11) Contrary to widely accepted views, I believe that...
12) What people fail to consider is that...
13) It is one thing to insist that..., it is quite another to show that...
14) Nothing can rival…(……是无与伦比的)
15) …has drawbacks as well as merits.
16) A is superior(inferior) to B.
17) ...varies from person to person(……是因人而异的)
18) A is just the opposite (to B)
19) A differs from B in that…(A不同于B在于……)
20) …is not the same (as)
1) this is true that...
2) This is true, no doubt, but...
4) It is one thing to...; it is another to...
1) .. . rank first (both) in...
2) .. .in proportion to...
3) A is by far the largest...
4) As many as....
5) The number is ...times as much as that of ...
6) The figure has nearly doubled/tripled, as against that of last year.
7) It accounts for 35% of...
8) By comparison with ..., it decreased/increased/fell from...to...
9) ...rise rapidly(slowly)
10) ...remain level...
11) ...reach ...
12)There is a slight/slow/steady/rapid rise/increase demand./income./population./prices./production./decrease/decline/reduction/fall/drop in
13) be on the increase/decrease/rise/decline (……在不断的增加,减少,上升,下降)
1) As can be indicated in the table, ...
2) As we could find out later, ...
3) As is revealed in the table,...
4) As the survey results show,...
5) This table provides several important points of comparison
6) The two graphs depict the same thing in ...
7) The key findings taken from the surveys are as follows:
8) According to the figures given in the table, ...
9) This chart shows that ...
10) As is shown by the graph, ...
11) It can be seen from the statistics that ...
12) It is generally believed /accepted/thought/held ...
1) There are some/two/many good reasons for.../to do...
2) We have two good reasons for...
3) The reason for ... is that + 从句
4) Among the most convincing reasons given by people for..., one should be mentioned...
5) One may think of the trend as a result of...
6) The change in... largely results from the fact that...
7) There are several causes for this significant growth in... irst...
8) A number of factors could account for the ....
9) It is no simple task to give the reason for ...
10) The cause of /reason for higher prices was an increase in demand.
11) Because/As/Now that/Since the demand has increased, the prices are higher.
12) An increase in demand causes/results in/leads to/produces higher prices.
13) The demand has increased.
14) Therefore,/As a result,/For this reason,/Because of this,/Consequently, the prices are higher.
15) If there is an increase in demand, then prices rise./go up. /boost./are higher.
16) Different people look at...in different ways...
1) Different people have/hold different opinions/views on the question/problem/matter. Some believe that ...; Others argue that... :Still others maintain that
2) They are quite different from each other in their opinions.
3) Some people hold the opinion that it is good to ....
4) They think quite differently on this question.
5) Opinions vary from individual to individual, from culture to culture.
1) It is important (necessary, urgent, difficult, easy, convenient, comfortable, expensive, desirable, advisable) for sb. to do sth.
2) ...have trouble/difficulty/a hard time/a difficult time (in) doing sth. (有困难做某事)
Inflated diction: 不使用做作的语言。
Sentence pattern: 句型要尽量多样化。
文章一开头,,就交待清楚文章的主题是什么。如“How I Spent My Vacation”(我怎样度假)的开头是:
I Spent my last vacation happily.
Honesty is one of the best virtues.An honest man is always trusted and respected.On the contrary, one who tells lies is regarded as a "liar",and is looked upon by honest people.
在文章的开头,先把人物、事件和环境交待清楚。例如"A Trip to Jinshan" (去金山旅游)的开头:
The day before yesterday my class went on a bus trip to Jinshan. The bus ride there took three hours. The long trip made us very tired, but the sight of the beautiful sea refreshed us.
用回忆的方法来开头。例如"A Trip to the Taishan Mountain"(泰山游)的开头是:
I remember my first trip to the Taishan Mountain as if it were yesterday.
即对要在文章中叙述的人或事先作一个概括性的介绍。如“The Happiness of Reading Books”(读书的快乐)的开头:
People often say that gold and silver are the most valuable things in the world. But I say that to read books is more valuable than anything else, because books give us knowledge and knowledge gives us power.
It was a rainy and windy morning. The sky was gloomy, the temperature was low, and the street was nearly empty. I was on my way back to school. Suddenly, a speeding car came round the corner.
在文章的一开头就交待写作目的,如通过文章要表扬谁,批评谁,或说明一个什么问题等。如 "Pollution Control" (控制污染)的开头:
In this article I shall draw your attention to the subject of pollution control.
文章的正文应以文章的开头为线索,具体地叙述、说明或论证文章的主题。文章不论长短,每个段落都必须为主题服务。像说明文和议论文这一类的文章,一个主题还常分成几个小主题,每个小主题要用一个段落处理,另起一段时,应是一层新的意思。每一段的开头,要放一个表示段落小主题的主题句,这样可使文章条理化,易于阅读,便于读者抓住主题。段内的所有句子应围绕主题句的意义加以阐述或论证,为中心思想服务。句子之间应衔结自然,有条不紊,而且还要合乎逻辑,段落中不能出现任何与主题无关的句子;英语写作比较重视主题句的作用,缺少它段落意义就会含糊不清。主题句也可放在段落的中间和末尾等部位,但对初学者来说,以放在段首为好。见下列这篇题为"How to Be a Good Student" (怎样做个好学生)的文章:
We students are the builders and masters of the country. It is important for us to know how to be a good student.
A good student, I think, should be diligent in his studies. The more he studies, the more he will increase his knowledge. Without enough knowledge, we cannot make great contributions to the modernization of our country.
To take care of one's own body is another important thing for good student to do. Anyone, who hasn't got a strong body, can do nothing for his country, even if he has much knowledge. There was a man, who, when he was student, studied hard but neglected his health. No sooner did he come to serve the country than he died of poor health. From this we may see that to have a strong body is really very important for a student.
Lastly, to cultivate one's own virtue is most important. Virtue is the essence
of a noble and good character. It will greatly help one to be useful and his country heart and soul. When learned people go astray, they do more harm than good to society. We should draw lessons from this.
Usally Saturday night is the time for students to get back to their desks and do their weekend homework. Six school days are enough for the students who have many other interests. I think weekend homework should not be given. With homework arranged for Saturday night and the whole of Sunday, when can he find time to help around the house, play a game of football or see a good film, or just relax? In fact weekend homework is usually put off until Sunday night. As a result our homework is done very poorly and we achive no results. If there were no homework on weekends, students would go to school on Monday well rested, willing to work. Teachers, don't you agree?
在文章的结尾,把含义较深的话放在末尾,以点明主题,深化主题,起到画龙点睛的效果。如"I Cannot Forget Her" (我忘不了她)的结尾:
After her death, I felt as if something were missing in my life. I was sad over her passing away, but I knew she would not have had any regrets at having given her life for the benefit of the people.
结尾回到文章开头阐明的中心思想或主题句上,达到强调的效果。如“I Love My Home Town”(我爱家乡)的结尾:
I love my home town, and I love its people. They too have changed. They are going all out to do more for the good of our motherland.
I caught as many as twenty fish in two hours, but my brother caught many more. Tired from fishing, we lay down on the river bank, bathing in the sun. We returned home very late.
用比喻或含蓄的手法不直接点明作者的看法,而是让读者自己去领会和思考。如“A Day of Harvesting”(收割的日子)的结尾:Evening came before we realized it. We put down our sickles and looked at each other. Our clothes were wet with sweat, but on every face there was a smile.
虽然形式是问句,但意义却是肯定的,并具有特别的强调作用,引起读者深思。如 "Should We Learn to Do Housework?" (我们要不要学做家务?) 的结尾。
Everyone should learn to do housework. Don't you agree, boys and girls?
结尾表示对将来的展望,或期待读者投入行动。如“Let's Go in for Sports”(让我们参加体育运动)的结尾:
As we have said above, sports can be of great value. They not only make people live happily but also help people to learn virtues and do their work bettter. A sound mind is in a sound body. Let's go in for sports.
1) Some one consider that fresh water will not touch it's end.(96年1月,2分)
2) One man's life lack of money, he will impossible to live on. (95年1月,5分)
3) As is know, that there are much fake commodities in today's society.(97年12月,6分)
表达思想不清楚的主要原因是考生作文中严重汉化的英语,即中式英语,比如: "man can live happiness", "Man is iron, and food is steel.", "Women are half side sky."。此外,语言错误的普遍性和严重性十分惊人,比如,主谓不一致,名词单复数不分,动词时态语态滥用,常用词拼写错误比比皆是。这些严重地影响了思想的表达。考试实践表明,多数考生在写作上的主要欠缺不是系统的写作理论和方法,而是最基本的单句写作能力。
介词against, beyond, but, except, without,...
形容词和动词absent, deny, differ, different, fail, free, ignore, miss, refuse, the last, used to,
reluctant, lack, want,...
短语keep...from, protect...from, prevent...from, let alone, at a loss, in vain, instead of, out
of the question, rather than, too...to, by no means, anything but,...
1) Women fail to get the equal rights in some countries.
2) This is by no means the best way to solve the problem of energy crisis.
3) We should protect trees from being destroyed.
4) In old China we could not make a nail, let alone(make) machines.
barely, hardly, few, little, rarely, scarcely, seldom, not all, not everyone, not everything,...具
1) We could hardly see any fresh vegetables in winter on market several years ago.
2) These young people know little about how to choose good books to read.
有些词和词组形式上是否定结构,但其含义是肯定的,比如:cannot but, can't help,
no sooner...than, not...until, in no time, none other than, nothing but,等等。例句:
1) We can't but face the reality.
2) These old buildings will be replaced by modern apartment buildings in no time.
1) On no account should we follow blindly.我们决不应当盲从。
2) No where has the world ever seen such great enthusiasm for learning as in our
1. As is known to all of us that science and technology play an important role in the
development of society.
2. It is known to us, practice makes perfect.
1. It is known to all of us that science and technology play an important role in the
development of society. (或:As is known to all of us, science...)
2. It is known to us that practice makes perfect. (或:As is known to us, practice...)
例句1是93年12月六级考试11分作文的评分样卷句子,例句2选自97年1月四级考试作文。很显然,两个考生混淆了it和as的用法。如果用it作形式主语,后面的主语从句必须由that引起;如果用as,则后面不能用that,因为as是关系代词,代表practice makes perfect。
It is necessary for us to master a foreign language skillfully. It makes difference whether
we could purify the air or not.
We find it rather difficult to prevent people from doing that. Modern science has made it
possible for babies to grow healthily and for people to live longer.
It is only by this way that we can achieve success. It was then that people began to realize
the importance of controlling population.
、 "There be"结构
1. There are many people like to go to the movies.
2. There are different kinds of vegetables can be bought on the market by people.
1. There are many people who like to go to the movies.
2. There are different kinds of vegetables that people can buy on the market.
1. There was no school in the village at that time. (=there was not a school...)
注意:在否定句中,否定词用no,也可用not a或not any。not a后接单数名词,not a 后接复数名词,no后面的名词单复数都可以。
2. There is not a moment to be lost.
3. There are many people rushing into the cities every year.
4. There are many things we can do to prevent traffic accidents.
5. There is no use holding back the wheel of history.
从以上例句还可看出,句中的主语后面可接多种修饰语,如介词短语、不定式短语、定语从句、分词短语等等。这无疑使该结构增加了表现力,使句子表达内容更加丰富。 在运用这一结构时,考生最容易犯的错误是在there be之后又用了一个动词作谓语,使句子结构出现严重错误。这里列举的考生的典型错误均属这种情况,对此我们在写作中要格外注意。
1. Comparing with the bike, the car runs much faster.
2. The climate in Walton is colder than other cities.
1. Compared with the bike, the car runs much faster.
2. The climate in Walton is colder than that of other cities.
在例1中,对两个事物进行比较的句式为Compared with A, B...,只能用compare的过去分词,不能用现在分词,因为B是分词的逻辑主语,只能被比较。在例2中,考生误将"天气"与"城市"进行比较,而二者没有可比性,只有将后者改为"其他城市的天气"才符合逻辑,很显然,考生的错误是受了汉语表达习惯的影响。
1) In 1998 we produced as many cars as we did in the previous five years.
2) We have accomplished as much in the past three years as would have taken ten years
in the past.
1) Children now enjoy better medical treatment than before.
2) We can live longer without food than we can (live ) without water.
1) This is the most interesting book I've ever read.
2) Of all his novels I like this one best.
4. the more…the more…结构
1) The harder you w**r progress you will make.
2) The more a man knows, the more he discovers his ignorance.
1) I prefer staying at home to going out.
2) They prefer to work rather than (to) sit idly.
3) He prefers to work alone.
注意:这里的1)句用的是Prefer A to B结构,to为介词,后接名词或动名词;2)句是以不定式作 prefer的宾语;3)句用法同2),只是不把rather than部分表达出来。
1) Motion is absolute while stagnation is relative.
2) He is tired out, whereas she is full of vigour.
1. The real reason to our failure is not far to seek.
2. The reason for this is because some people want to earn plenty of money without
1. The real reason for our failure is not far to seek.
2. The reason for this is that some people want to earn plenty of money without working
以上两个病句分别引自92年1月和97年12月四级考试的考生作文。从遣词造句上看,这两位考生具有一定的写作能力,not far to seek, plenty of money以及without working hard等均运用正确、恰当。但令人遗憾的是,第一位考生不知道reason不与to搭配而应接介词for,第二位考生犯了一个中国学生常犯的错误,就是用because引起表语从句,because这个词不能引起表语从句,在本句中只能改用that才正确。
英语中用来表达原因这一概念的结构有多种。我们可用as , because, since, seeing that, considering that, now that, not that...等词组引出表示原因的从句。例如:
1. Now that we have seen these great achievements with our own eyes, we feel more
proud than ever of our country.
2. Professor Liu is strict with us because he wants us to make rapid progress.
3. Since we live near the sea, we enjoy a healthy climate.
4. Pollution is still a serious problem, not that we don't have the ability to solve it, but that
some people have not realized the consequences of the problem.
1. The reason for this change is quite obvious.
2. Diligence is the key factor of success.
3. Idleness is the root of all evils.
4. He was ashamed to have made the mistake.(=He was ashamed that he had made the
mistake. =He was ashamed because he had made the mistake.)
1. Some people think we needn't to worry about fresh water.
2. Nowadays many people don't like to go to the movies, too.
1. Some people think we needn't worry (或don't need to worry) about fresh water.
2. Nowadays many people don't like to go to the movies, either.
例句1选自96年1月四级考生作文,例句2选自92年1月六级考生作文。例句1 的错误在于该考生混淆了need作为情态动词和作为普通动词的用法。need作为情态动词时,主要用于否定句,后面的动词不带to, needn't worry,作we的谓语。need作为实意动词时,可用于肯定句、否定句和疑问句,don't need to worry 中的to worry作don't need的宾语。例句2的错误在于该考生混淆了too和either的区别,这两个词都表示"也"的意思,但是在英语中too, also只能用于肯定句,而either只能用于否定句。
段落( paragraph )是由表达单一中心思想(controlling idea or central idea )的一组句子(包括主题句 topic sentence,推展句supporting sentences及结论句concluding sentence)构成,是文章结构的基本独立单位。本讲我们将就主题句和中心思想这两个方面展开讨论。
My mother has passed along to me certain rules for getting along with others. Don't argue with parents; they will think you don't love them. Don't argue with children; they will think themselves victimized. Don't argue with spouses; they will think you are a tiresome mate. Don't argue with strangers; they will think you are not friendly. My mother's rules, in fact, can be summed up in two words: Don't argue.
主题句中提出的 "certain rules" 指的是什么?展开句中通过四个 "Don't argue --" 逐一加以交代。从结构来看,这是一个比较典型的段落,它包括了主题句,推展句和结论句(即本段中的末句)。
例1: Our life today depends very much on energy. In towns and in villages, on farms and in factories, machines have made life easier than it used to be. The machines use energy, and energy is needed for heating, lighting, communications, carrying goods -- everything. Factories and industrial plants use a great deal of energy to make the things that we use and buy and sell.
例2: (主题句)No one can avoid being influenced by advertisements. (推展句1)Much as we may pride ourselves on our good taste, we are no longer free to choose the things we want, for advertising exerts a subtle influence on us. (推展句2)In their efforts to persuade us to buy this or that product, advertisers have made a close study of human nature and have classified all our little weakness.
段落的主题句对主题的限定主要是通过句中的关键词来表现的。关键词要尽量写得具体些。对“具体”的要求包括两个方面:一是要具体到能控制和限制段落的发展;二是要具体到能说明段落发展的方法。准确地把握关键词是清楚地表达段落主题、写好段落主题句的重要前提之一。在上面的例1,例2中,主题句的关键词分别为:depends very much on energy; no one can avoid being influenced. 我们再看下列例句:
原句1: He can fix a bicycle himself.
修正:He can fix a bicycle himself in several simple steps.
修正:There are several reasons why he can fix a bicycle himself.
原句2: She tries to improve her looks.
修正:She tries many ways to improve her looks.
修正:There are some reasons why she tries to improve her looks。
There are two ways in which one can own a book. The first is the property right you establish by paying for it, just as you have made it a part of yourself and the best way to make yourself a part of it is by writing in it.
本段的主题句如果没有in which 引出的定语从句,那么two ways 不仅不能起制约作用,而且也不能起导向作用,句子本身读起来也就使人觉得欠缺点什么。
Exercise is beneficial to your heart. A 22-year study was conducted by doctors in California. They found that people who work at physical jobs experience fewer heart attacks than other people. These active people work all the time at moderate speeds, their daily routine gives them an adequate amount of exercise and helps them stay in shape.
"Exercise is beneficial"这是毫无疑义的。但主题句中如不加上"to your heart"来加以 control 和 limit,那就流于空泛。
主要推展句(major supporting statement)的主要特点是:围绕段落主题句展开的每一个推展句本身都不要求作进一步的说明或证明,句与句之间的关系是相互独立又是互相连接的。
例1主题句) There are several factors affecting climate. (推展句1)One factor is the mount of sunlight received. (推展句2)Altitude, or the height above sea level, also determines climate. (推展句3)The oceans have an effect on the climate of adjacent land. (推展句4)In addition, climate is influenced by the general circulation of the atmosphere.
次要推展句(minor supporting statement)是指对主要推展句作进一步的事实分析和举例说明。它从属于某一个或某几个推展句。
例2:(主题句)I don't teach because teaching is easy for me. (主要推展句1)Teaching is the most difficult of the various ways I have attempted to earn my living: mechanic, carpenter, writer. (主要推展句2)For me, teaching is a red-eye, sweaty-palm, sinking-stomach profession. (次要推展句1)Red-eye, because I never feel ready to teach no matter how late I stay up preparing. (次要推展句2)Sweaty-palm, because I'm always nervous before I enter the classroom, sure that I will be found out for the fool that I am. (次要推展句3)Sinking-stomach, because I leave the classroom an hour later convinced that I was even more boring than usual.
从属于主要推展句2的三个次要推展句起着解释说明作用,分别解释red-eye, sweaty-palm, sinking-stomach的含义,这就更加形象生动地证明了 "teaching is not easy" 这个主题。
假设 (suppose) Topic sentence: English is an international language?
设问(why) Why can we say English is an international language?
Because: English is spoken by pilots and airport control operators on all the airways of the world.
Because: Over 70 percent of the world's mail is written in English.
Because: More than 60 percent of the world's radio programs are in English.
Because: Pakistan was once one of the British colonies.
Because: Many members of the International Language Society are selected from English-spoken countries.
从上面可以看出,最初的三个推展句是和关键词an international language一致的。第四句和主题句不统一,尽管第四句会成为另一主题句(Many Pakistanis speak English)很好的推展句。第五句说服力不强。
Yesterday was one of those awful days for me when everything I did went wrong. First, I didn't hear my alarm clock and arrived late for work. Then, I didn't read my diary properly and forgot to get to an important meeting with my boss. During the coffee break, I dropped my coffee cup and spoilt my new skirt. At lunch time, I left my purse on a bus and lost all the money that was in it. After lunch, my boss was angry because I hadn't gone to the meeting. Then I didn't notice a sign on a door that said "Wet Paint" and so I spoilt my jacket too. When I got home I couldn't get into my flat because I had left my key in my office. So I broke a window to get in and cut my hand.
根据本段主题句中的关键词组everything I did went wrong,作者列举了8点内容,分别由first, then, during the coffee break, after lunch time等连接词语引出,使得该文条理清楚、脉络分明、内容连贯。
常用于列举法的过渡连接词有:for one thing , for another, finally, besides, moreover, one another , still another, first, second, also等。
There are many different forms of exercises to suit different tastes. For example, those who enjoy competitive sports may take up ball games. For another example, if they prefer to exercise alone, they can have a run or take a walk in the morning or in the evening. Besides, people can go swimming in the summer and go skating in the winter. In short, no matter what their interests are, people can always find more than one sports that are suitable to them.
本段采用了三个事例来说明主题句中的关键词组different forms of exercises,这三个例子分别由连接词for example, for another example 和 besides引出,最后由引导的结尾句总结全段内容。
举例法中常用的连接词有:for example (instance), one example is, besides, furthermore, moreover, in addition等。
In the flat opposite, a woman heard the noise outside. When she looked out through the window, she discovered that her neighbor was threatened by someone. She immediately called the police station. In answer to the call, a patrol police car arrived at the scene of the crime quickly. Three policemen went inside the flat at once, and others guarded outside the building to prevent anyone from escaping.
常用于叙述法中的过渡连接词有:first, an the beginning, to start with, after that, later, then, afterwards, in the end, finally等。
4. 对比法或比较法(comparison & contrast)
The heart of an electronic computer lies in its vacuum tubes, or transistors. Its electronic circuits work a thousand times faster than the nicer cells in the human brain. A problem that might take a human being a long time to solve can be solved by a computer in one minute.
在这段文字上, 作者为了突出电子计算机运行速度之快,首先将它与人脑进行了比较, "-- a thousand times faster than --" ;而后,又将这一概念具体到了 "a problem"上,通过对比使读者从 "-- a long time -- in one minute"上有更加直观的认识。
常用于对本法或比较法上的过渡连接词有:than, compared with等。
Ever since humans have lived on the earth, they have made use of various forms of communication. Generally, this expression of thoughts and feelings has been in the form of oral speech. When there is a language barrier, communication is accomplished through sign language in which motions stand for letters, words and ideas. Tourists and the people unable to hear or speak have had to resort to this form of expression. Many of these symbols of whole words are very vivid and exact and can be used internationally; spelling, however, cannot. Body language transmits ideas or thoughts by certain actions, either intentionally or unintentionally. A nod signifies approval, while shaking the head indicates a negative reaction. Other forms of nonlinguistic language can be found in signal flags, Morse code, and picture signs.
在该段中为了说明topic sentence中的 "various forms of communication",作者将其分为oral speech, sign language, body language及other forms of nonlinguistic language,并逐加阐述。
6. 因果分析法(cause and effect)
The role of women in today's society is changing. One reason is that women have begun to assert themselves as independent people through the women's movement. Also, women are aware of the alternatives to staying at home. Another reason is that increasing numbers of women who enter new fields and interests serve as role models for other women. Moreover, men are becoming more conscious of the abilities of women and have begun to view their independence positively.
本段中,主题句提出了一种社会现象,推展句则对产生这种现象的原因作出各种解释。 常用于因果分析法的连接词有:because, so, as a result等。
Automation refers to the introduction of electronic control and automation operation of productive machinery. It reduces the human factors, mental and physical, in production, and is designed to make possible the manufacture of more goods with fewer workers. The development of automation in American industry has been called the "Second Industrial Revolution".
这一段文字使我们了解了 "automation" 和 "Second Industrial Revolution" 两个概念,分别由 "refers to" 和 "been called" 引出。
常出现在定义法中的词语有:refer to, mean, call等。
Since that time, which is far enough away from now, I have often thought that few people know what secrecy there is in the young, under terror. I was in mortal terror of the young man who wanted my heart and liver; I was in mortal terror of my interlocutor with the iron leg; I was in mortal terror of myself, from whom an awful promise had been extracted; --
该段中反复应用了I was in mortal terror of …我经常处于恐怖之中。
(例1)A sense of humor is really one of the keys to happiness. It gives zest to life to make it worth living.
(例2)With all these benefits, it is no wonder that sports and games have now become more popular with people than ever.
(例1)In conclusion, a good teacher-student relationship can be mutual beneficial. The students gain knowledge eagerly and enjoyably, and the teacher gains satisfaction from his job.
(例2)On the whole there are more advantages than disadvantages in the use of TV. Yet different people may have different attitude toward TV. But we must realize that television in itself is neither good nor bad. Its value to people and society depends on how we look at it.
(例1)If you have anything to do, try to do it yourself, for that is the safest way to
permanent success. Remember the famous saying. "God helps those who help themselves."
(例2)If we stick to studies day after day, there is nothing that can't be achieved. As an old saying goes: "Constant dropping of water wears away a stone."
(例1)Therefore, listening skills must be consciously improved. Since it is such an important means of learning and communication, why should we not develop this ability as far as possible?
(例2)So,what can we benefit from wealth if we do not have health?
(例1)I am sure that Chinese will become one of the most important languages in the world in the next century. As China will open further to the outside world the language is sure to be spread world widely.
(例2) If everyone has developed good manners, people will form a more harmonious relation. If everyone behaves considerately towards others and social ethics people will live in a better world. With the general mood of society improved, there will be a progress of civilization.
首先,一个段落必须有一个中心即主题思想,该中心由主题句特别是其中的题旨来表达。整个段落必须紧扣这个主题(stick or hold to the topic),这就是段落的统一性(unity)。其次,一个段落必须有若干推展句,使主题思想得到充分展开,从而给读者一个完整的感觉,这就是完整性(completeness or adequateness)。再者,一个段落不是杂乱无章的,而是有机的组合,句子的排列顺序必须合乎逻辑,从一个句子到另一个句子的过渡必须流畅(smooth),这就是连贯性(coherence)。下面我们就对这三个标准分别加以说明。
Joe and I decided to take the long trip we'd always wanted across the country. We were like young kids buying our camper and stocking it with all the necessities of life. Bella bakes the best rhubarb pie. We started out in early spring from Minneapolis and headed west across the northern part of the country. We both enjoyed those people we met at the trailer park. Joe received a watch at his retirement dinner. To our surprise, we found that we liked the warm southern regions very much, and so we decided to stay here in New Mexico.
本段的主题句是段首句,controlling idea(中心思想)是take the long trip across the country。文中出现两个irrelevant sentences,一个是Bella bakes the best rhubarb pie,这一段是讲的是Joe and I,中间出现一个Bella是不合适的。还有,Joe received a watch at his retirement dinner这一句更是与主题句不相关。考生在四级统考的作文卷上常常因为造出irrelevant sentences(不相关语句)而丢分,值得引起注意。再看一个例子:
My name is Roseanna, and I like to keep physically fit. I used to weigh two hundred pounds, but I joined the YMCA for an exercise class and diet program. In one year I lost eighty pounds. I feel much better and never want to have that much weight on my five-feet frame again. I bought two new suitcases last week. Every day I practice jogging three miles, swimming fifteen laps, lifting twenty-pound weights and playing tennis for one hour. My mother was a premature baby.
本段的controlling idea 是like to deep physically fit,但段中有两个irrelevant sentences,一个是I bought two new suitcases last week,另一个是My mother was a premature baby。
The sight of such a beautiful girl took Tony's breath away.
Everyone has a skeleton in his closet.
Don't count your chickens before they hatch.
Time heals all wounds. 时间会治疗一切创伤
A little knowledge is dangerous.
Your hardworking will be rewarded by God one day. God is equal to everyone!
Rome wasn't built in a day. Work harder and practice more.
History repeats itself.
No sweet without sweat.
A rolling stone gathers no moss.
Everyone has a skeleton in his closet.
To teach a fish how to swim.
The grass is greener on the other side of the fence.
When you understand the cultural background, you can better use the language.
I would also like to learn more about the culture behind the language.
Great minds think alike.
The way to lean a language is to practice speaking it as often as possible.
Relax! Be patient and enjoy yourself. learning foreign languages should be fun.
Learning any language takes a lot of effort. But don't give up.
Fails to look interviewer in the eye.
Condemns past emloyers.
Is unwilling to start at the bottom: expects too much too soon.
Overemphasizes money: is interested only in the best dollar offer.
Has limp, weak handshake.
Lacks confidence and poise: is nervous and ill at ease.
Is not prepared for interview.
Lacks planning for career: has no purpose or goals.
Lacks knowledge or experience。
Has a poor personal appearance.
I like to see a job done quickly.
I expect others to perform beyond their capacities.
I tend to drive myself too hard.
What are your greatest weaknesses?
I can organize my time efficiently.
I work well with others.
I'm willing to make decisions.
What are your greatest strengths?
As long as my position here allows me to lean and to advance at a pace consistent with my abilities.
If we hire you, how long will you stay with us?
My academic preparation, job skills, and enthusiasm about working for the firm.
It pays to help others. 帮助别人是值得的。
1. Mature,dynamic and honest.思想成熟、精明能干、为人诚实。
2. Excellent ability of systematical management.有极强的系统管理能力。
3.Ability to work independently,mature and resourceful.能够独立工作、思想成熟、应变能力强。
4.A person with ability plus flexibility should apply.需要有能力及适应力强的人。
5.A stable personality and high sense of responsibility. 个性稳重、具高度责任感。
6.Work well with a multi-cultural and diverse work force. 能够在不同文化和工作人员的背景下出色地工作
7. Bright,aggressive applicants.反应快、有进取心的应聘者。
8. Ambitious attitude essential.有雄心壮志。
9.Initiative,independent and good communication skill. 积极主动、独立工作能力强,并有良好的交际技能
10.Willing to work under pressure with leardership quality.愿意在压力下工作,并具领导素质。
11. Willing to assume responsibilities.应聘者须勇于挑重担。
12.Mature,self-motivated and strong interpersonal skills. 思想成熟、上进心强,并具极丰富的人际关系技巧。
14. With a pleasant mature attitude.开朗成熟。
15. Strong determination to succeed.有获得成功的坚定决心。
16. Strong leadership skills.有极强的领导艺术。
17.Ability to work well with others.能够同他人一道很好地工作。
18. Highly-motivated and reliable person with excellent health and pleasant personality. 上进心强又可靠者,并且身体健康、性格开朗。
1) ... not so much...... as (but) ... 与其说……还不如说……
(2) ... not so much that.....as (but) that...... 与其说……还不如说……
(3) ... not so much as..... (=not even) 甚至于不……,连……也不……
(4) ... might as well ... as..... 与其说……还不如说……
例1:He is not so much a teacher as a scholar.
She is not so much tall I see as thin.
例2:It wasn't so much his appearance I liked as his personality.
It's not so much his money I love as himself.
例3:It's not so much that I don't want to come but I just haven't got the time.
It's not so much that he want to do work but he want to sleep.
例4:He didn't so much as say thank you after all we'd done for him.
He didnot so much as say sorry that he had treaded me
例5:You might as well throw your money into the sea as lend it to him.
I might as well spend this count of money as save up it
[注意]:more ... than ...
1) she is more beautiful than her sister. 她比她姐姐漂亮。
2) George is more intelligent than aggressive. 与其说乔治言行放肆,不如说他聪颖过人。
more...than结构在上述1) 2)两句中的用法也适用于less ... than结构,得出相反的含义:
1) John is less daring than quick-witted. 与其说约翰胆大,不如说他脑子灵活。
2) George was less intelligent than aggressive. 与其说乔治聪颖过人,不如说他言行放肆。
have none of: 不参加;不准;不接受
I will have none of your stupid ideas! 我才不接受你那愚蠢的想法!
He was offered a job but he said he’d have none of it. 他有一个工作机会,但他说他不接受。
none but (=nothing but): 只有 (=only)
None but the brave deserves the fair. 只有英雄才配得上美人。
She chose none but the best. 她只选最好的。
She is nothing but a child. 她只不过是个孩子。
none other than: (表示惊讶)不是别人,正是…… (= no one else but)
It’s none other than Tom! We thought you were in Africa.
none the +比较级词+ for: 毫不,一点也不
He spent 2 weeks in hospital but he’s none the better for it.
My car is none the worse for wear. 我的车子一点也没有损耗。
none the wiser: 不知情
If we take only one piece of cake, mother will be none the wiser.
none too: (在形容词或副词前) 不太;一点都不
The service in this restaurant is none too fast. 这家旅馆的服务一点效率都没有。
anything but: ①除---之外什么都(此处的but等于except)②决不(=not at all)
I eat anything but (except) fish. 除了鱼,我什么都吃。
She is anything but a good cook. 她决不是个好厨师。(即:除了好厨师,她什么都是。)
anything of: ①(疑问句/条件句)一点点;②(否定句)一点也(没有)
Is he anything of a poet? 他有一点点诗人的样子吗?
I haven’t seen anything of him lately. 最近我没有见过他。
for anything: (否定句)(给什么都)不,决不
I won’t go there for anything. 我决不去那里。
or anything: (意味着还有其他的可能性)
If Bernard wants to call me or anything, I’ll be here all day.
if anything: 若有任何不同的话
If anything, my new job is harder than my old one.
or something: 或什么的(表示说话者不能肯定)
She is a stewardess or something. 她是空姐或什么的。
something like: 有点像,大约
An airship is shaped something like a cigar. 飞船的形状有点像雪茄。
something of a...: 多少有点,有几分像,略懂
he’s something of a book collector. 他有几分像书籍收藏家。
something to / in: (叙述等)有些道理
There’s something to / in what you say; I’ll take your advice.
have / be something to do with: 与……有关
I think Guy Fawkes had / was something to do with a plan to blow up the bridge.
nothing but (= none but = only): 仅仅,只不过
We could see nothing but fog. 除了雾之外我们什么也看不见。
for nothing: ①免费的; ②徒劳的; ③无缘无故的
She got the ticket for nothing. 她免费得到那张票。
All our preparation for nothing! No one’s even come to the party.
They quarreled for nothing. 他们无缘无故地争吵。
make nothing of: (常和can一起用)不理解;不重视,轻视 (= think nothing of)
I could make nothing of the passage. 我不理解这篇文章。
He makes / thinks nothing of working ten hours a day. 他不在乎一天工作十小时。
to say nothing of: 更不用说(= not to mention / without mentioning)
Three people were badly hurt, to say nothing of damage to the building.
have nothing to do with: 与……无关
I have nothing to do with the accident. 我与这场事故无关。
nothing if not: 格外地;非常地 (= very / much / extremely)
He was nothing if not clever. (= He was very clever.) 他格外聪明。
nothing of: 无……的部分;无……的气质
There was nothing of the lady in her behavior. 她的举止根本没有淑女的气质。
all but 几乎,差一点,除……以外其余都是
例1:She all but fainted when she heard the news.
All but the little children thought that the trip was exciting.
此句中all but意为a11 except。
例2:But for the rain we should have a pleasant journey.
例3:He would have helped us but that he was short of money at the time.
注1).but that引导的从句中谓语用陈述语气。2).but that有灵活的译法。如:Nothing would satisfy that child but that I place her on my lap.(那孩子什么都不要,只要我把她抱在怀里。)
例1:Moreover, technology includes techniques, or ways to do things, as well as the machines that may or may not be necessary to apply them.
4.“only + to do”意为“……,结果却……”,即表示与句子谓语动作的目的相反的结果。
例1: They don't have to pay for expensive seats at the theatre, the cinema or the opera, only
to discover, perhaps, that the show is disappointing.
例2: They hurried there only to find the meeting canceled.
5.not more / -er than 与 no more / -er than 结构
John is not better than Tom.
John is no better than Tom.
前一句表示“约翰不比汤姆好”,属于普通的比较结构;后一例用了no 情况就不同了。no better than 相当于as bad as,含义是两人一样坏。这里,“no + 形容词或副词比较级 + than”所表示的可以说是该形容词或副词的反意。
例如: no richer than = as poor as 和……一样穷
no bigger than = as small as 和……一样小
no later than = as early as 和……一样早
I have not taken more than six courses this semester.
I have taken no more than six courses this semester.
上述结构与表示前后都否定的no more...than (= not...any more than)又有所不同:
例:A whale is no more a fish than a horse is.(鲸和马同样不是鱼。)
另外,在某些结构中,单独使用more than 也能表示否定概念:
例1:That is more than I can tell. 我简直不能说。
例2:My trip to Beijing is more than sightseeing. 我去北京不仅仅是旅游观光而已。
6.no more...than... (= not...any more than) 和……—样都不……(表示前后都否定)
例1:The heart is no more intelligent than the stomach, for they are both controlled by the brain. 心脏和胃一样都无智力可言,因为它们都是由大脑控制的。
例2:There is no reason they should limit how much vitamin you take, any more than they can limit how much water you drink.
例3:More and more Afro-Americans see him as a tricky enemy who has no more love for them than he has for the Congolese.
注释:not...any more than是no more...than的一种强调形式。
1) Jack is no more intelligent than John. (=Jack is not intelligent any more than John.)
2) A man can no more fly than a bird can speak. (=A man cannot fly any more than a bird can speak.) 人不会飞翔,就像鸟不会说话一样。
3) As a nation, the French are no more eager to 1earn about their wartime failings than are the Japanese. (=As a nation,the French are not eager to learn about their wartime failings any more than are the Japanese.)
上述例句表明,no more...than并不表示比较,而是表示比喻,含有比喻意义的比较级用于否定时,than后面的从句不用否定式,但译成汉语时要用否定式。而与上述句型意义相反的是:no less...than,意为:“和……同样是……”。例如:
Human is no less an animal than a monkey is. 人和猴都是动物。
而no less than 的意思为:“简直是,实在是”,例如:
1) It is no less than blackmail to ask such a high price. 如此索要高价,简直是敲诈。
2) It is no less than a scandal. 这实在是一件丑闻。
7.not nearly (=by no means,far from) 远不
例1: The food supply will not increase nearly enough to match this, which means that we are heading into a crisis in the matter of producing and marketing food.
注:1) this是指上面提到的“到21世纪初世界人口将增加到60亿或70亿”。2) 又如:There are not nearly enough people here to do the job.(这里的人手远远不够承担这项工作。)
to say nothing of
not to speak of
not to mention
这四个词组也意为 “更不用说”,也是一种追补的说法。但它们与much less和still less有所不同。这些词组可以随前一句的意思而定,即前一句是肯定,则追加的也是肯定意义;如果前一句是否定,则追加的是否定意义
例1:I could not agree to, much less participate in such proceedings.
例2:He knows little of mathematics, and still less of chemistry.
例3:I did not even see him, still less (= much less) shake hands with him.
例4:In old China, here was hardly any machine-building industry, to say nothing of an electronic industry.
例5:Sally takes singing and dancing lessons, to say nothing of swimming and tennis lessons.
例6:At that time they could not afford the ordinary comforts of life, not to speak of luxuries.
例7:They have three fine sons, not to speak of their two 1ovely daughters.
例8:I don't know algebra or geometry,not to mention calculus.
例9:A11 they have to do is press a button,and they can see plays, films, operas and shows of every kind, not to mention political discussions and the latest exciting football match.
例10:I can't add two and two, let alone do fractions.
注意:美国成语词典认为let alone只能用于追加的否定。但是,有的词典认为,该短语也可以引导追加的肯定。例如:There were five people in the car, let alone the luggage and the two dogs.
9.nothing else than 完全是,实在是
例1: What the man said was nothing else than nonsense.
例2: Your success was due to nothing else than your own diligence.
10.It is not that...but that... 这不是说……,而是说……
例1: It is not that the scales in the one case, and the balance in the other, differ in the principles of their construction or manner of working; but that the latter is much finer apparatus and of course much more accurate in its measurement than the former.
11.can not...too... 再……也不过分
例1: We cannot be too careful of health. 我们无论如何注意健康也不为过。
例2: You cannot be too careful when you drive a car. 你开车时再小心也不过分。
例3: We can not be too faithful to our duties. 我们必须尽力忠于职守。
12.other...than... 或other than... 不同于,非;除了
例l: Plants which refine crude ores are often located in countries other than those in which the crude ores are mined.
例2: Reactions other than the desired one often occur when reactants are brought together.
例3: All parts of the house other than the windows were in good condition.
13. ... the last + n. + 不定式或定语从句:意为“…最不可能的……”
例1: She would be the last person to go along with the scheme.
例2: That's the last thing I'd expect you to do.
14.It is asserted that...有人断言...
It is believed that... 据认为....,人们相信....
It is considered that...有人认为...
It is reported that...据报道...
It is said that...据说....
It is supposed that...据推测...
It is told that...据传...
It appears that看来似乎...,好像...
It is well known that...众所周知...
It is estimated that...据估计...
It was pointed out that...有人指出...
It is generally accepted that...人们通常认为...,一般认为...,大家公认...
It is alleged that...人们断言...
It is claimed that...有人主张...,人们要求...
It cannot be denied that...不可否认
It has been found that...实践证明
It is predicted that...据估计...,据预测...
It is suggested that...有人建议...
15.It goes without saying that... 不言而喻,……
例:It goes without saying that in order to speak good English, we must first of all learn good pronunciation.
16.It is common knowledge that… 众所周知,……
例:It is common knowledge now that Chinese people are very intelligent.
17.It occurs to sb. that… (某人) 想起……
例1: It occurred to me suddenly that I had met him somewhere.
例2: It occurred to me that she was jealous of me.
2,Put up or shut up.要么你就去做,不然就给我闭嘴
3,You eat with that mouth?你是用这张嘴吃饭的吗?言下之意是你的嘴那么脏,你还用它吃饭?
4,You are dead meat.你死定了。也可以说:“You are dead.”你完蛋了
5,Don't you dare!How dare you!你好大的胆子啊!
6,Don't push me around.不要摆布我。
7,You want to step outside?想到外去单挑吗?
让你的英文增色的好句子1. Time flies.
2. Time is money.
3. Time and tide wait for no man.
4. Time tries all.
5. Time tries truth.
6. Time past cannot be called back again.
7. All time is no time when it is past.
8. No one can call back yesterday;Yesterday will not be called again.
9. Tomorrow comes never.
10.One today is worth two tomorrows.
11.The morning sun never lasts a day.
12.Christmas comes but once a year.
13.Pleasant hours fly past.
14.Happiness takes no account of time.
15.Time tames the strongest grief.
16.The day is short but the work is much.
17.Never deter till tomorrow that which you can do today.
18.Have you somewhat to do tomorrow,do it today.
19.To him that does everything in its proper time,one day is worth three.
20.To save time is to lengthen life.
21.Everything has its time and that time must be watched.
22.Take time when time cometh,lest time steal away.
23.When an opportunity is neglected,it never comes back to you.
24.Make hay while the sun shines.
25.Strike while the iron is hot.
26.Work today,for you know not how much you may be hindered tomrrow.
27.Punctuality is the soul of business.
28.Procrastination is the thief of time.
29.Every tide hath ist ebb.
30.Knowledge is power.
31.Wisdom is more to be envied than riches.
32.Wisdom is better than gold or silver.
33.Wisdom in the mind is better than money in the hand.
34.Wisdom is a good purchase though we pay dear for it.
35.Doubt is the key of knowledge.
36.If you want knowledge,you must toil for it.
37.A little knowledge is a dangerous thing.
38.A handful of common sense is worth a bushel of learning.
39.Knowledge advances by steps and not by leaps.
40.Learn wisdom by the follies of others.
41.It is good to learn at another man’s cost.
42.Wisdom is to the mind what health is to the body.
43.Experience is the best teacher.
44.Experience is the father of wisdom and memory the mother.
45.Dexterity comes by experience.
46.Practice makes perfect.
47.Experience keeps a dear school,but fools learn in no other.
48. Experience without learning is better than learning without experience.
49.Wit once bought is worth twice taught.
50.Seeing is believing.
51.Business is the salt of life.
52.Business before pleasure.
53.Business makes a man as well as tries him.
54.Business neglected is business lost.
55.Never think yourself above business.
56.Business may be troublesome,but idleness is pernicious.
57.He that thinks his business below him will always be above his business.
58.Do business,but be not a slave to it.
59.Everybody’s business is nobody’s business.
60.Work makes the workman.
61.Better master one than engage with ten.
62.A work ill done must be twice done.
63.They who cannot do as they would,must do as they can.
64.If you would have a thing well done,do it yourself.
65.He that doth most at once doth least.
66.Do as most men do and men will speak well of thee.
67.What may be done at any time will be done at no time.
68.Better late than never.
69.Whatever is worth doing at all is worth doing well.
70.The shortest answer is doing the thing.
71.Action is the proper fruit of knowledge.
72.Finished labours are pleasant.
73.It is lost labour to sow where there is no soil.
74.It is right to put everything in its proper use.
75.Affairs that are done by due degrees are soon ended.
76.All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy.
77.Work bears witness who does well.
78.It is not work that kills,but worry.
79.He that will not work shall not eat.
80.Business is business.
81.Deliberate slowly,执行 promptly.
82.Put your shoulder to the wheel.
83.Never do things by halves.
84.In for a penny,in for a pound.
85.Many hands make quick work.
86.Many hands make light work.
87.A bad workman quarrels with his tools.
88.Diligence is the mohter of success.
89.Idleness is the root of all evil.
90.Care and diligence bring luck.
91.Diligence is the mother of good fortune.
92.Industry is fortune’s right hand,and frugality her left.
93.Idleness is the key of beggary.
94.No root,no fruit.
95.Idle people (folks) have the most labour (take the most pains).
96.Sloth is the key of poverty.
97.Sloth turneth the edge of wit.
98.An idle brain is the devil’s workshop.
99.The secret of wealth lieth in the letters SAVE.
100. An idle youth,a needy age.
1、Come on,be a man!来吧,像个男子汉!
2、That's better than I can do. 你比我做得好多了。
3、I believe you can improve it. 我相信你能做得更好。
4、I think you should go ahead. 我认为你应该继续干下去。
5、If at first you dont't succeed,try,try,and try again. 如果一开始你没成功,尝试,尝试,再尝试!
6、You have my whole-hearted support. 我全心全意支持你。
7、There is no reason to feel discouraged. 没有必要感到灰心。
8、The longest road must have an end. 你总会有出头之日的。
9、Keep it up!不要泄气!
10、I'll be always there for you!我永远支持你!
1. we are enclosing herewith....
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