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[文法外] 【华工考研院】23华工英语笔译211:英语词汇+短语辨析(1)

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发表于 2022-1-7 09:58 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
课时2:英语词汇+短语辨析
(形似意异/近义辨析

1.absorbent/absorbing

absorbent adj.能吸收的,有吸引力的
absorbent cotton脱脂棉
Sponge is absorbent of water.海绵能吸水。
absorbing adj.吸引人的,引人入胜的
Boys find The Adventure of Tom Sawyer an absorbing book男孩子们发现《汤姆•索耶历险记》是本吸引人的书。


练习:Many of the works exhibited in the gallery are...,filled with energy and vitality, bright colors and unique ways of expressing ideas.(16年单选)
A.imaginative  B.imaginable C.imagined D.imaginary


2、alive, live, living, lively
这一组形容词都跟"活"有关。
alive a.活着的,有活力的,常作表语,作定语时必须后置。
After the accident, he was barely alive.交通事故后,他奄奄一息。
all man alive 所有活着的人
live a.活的,有活力的,现场直播的。
We watched the live broadcast of the opera on TV.我们通过电视观看了这部歌剧的实况。
living a.活着的,作定语可前可后,可修饰人也可修饰物。
Who is the world's greatest living artist?谁是现在还健在的世界上最伟大的艺术家?
living room 起居室
lively a.活泼的,栩栩如生的。
She is a lively young girl, always laughing and doing things.她是个活泼可爱的小姑娘,总是欢声笑语忙个不停。

3.blunder, error, mistake
这一组名词都表示"错误"。
blunder n. (因为无知、疏忽犯下的)大错,愚蠢的错误。
I think that I committed a blunder in asking her because she seemed very upset by my question.这位女士由于我的问题感到很难过,我感觉到犯了一个大错。
error n.指判断、计算或行为上的错误,也可指智力或道义上的错误。
The accident was the result of human error.这事故是人为的错误造成的。
mistake n.误会,误解;(粗心、遗忘所导致的)错误。
I took your bag instead of mine by mistake.我错拿了你的手提包。


4.component, element, factor, ingredient
这一组名词都有"组成成分"的意思。
component n.零部件;(某事物的)组成部分;成分。
Tires, the engine, the body, and the seats are component of a car.轮胎,引擎,车身以及坐椅都是一辆汽车的零部件。
element n.元素;组成部分,方面;某特定类型的人或群体,分子。
The elements hydrogen and oxygen combine to form water.氢元素和氧元素构成了水。
He belongs to a bad element in this city.他属于这个城市的坏分子。factor n.因素,要素,侧重指原因。
Endurance is an important factor in success in sports.耐力是体育比赛成功的一个重要因素。
ingredient n.原料,成分,要素。
Flour, milk, butter and yeast are some ingredients in bread.面粉、牛奶、黄油和酵母是做面包的一些原料。


5.transaction, transition, transmission, transformation, transfer ,conversion
transaction n.交易行为,处理。
Transactions of shares on the stock exchange were up today.今天证券交易所的股票成交额上升了。
transition n. (从一种情况到另一种的)过渡,更替。
The transition from high school to college can be difficult for students.对于学生来说,从中学到大学的过渡会是困难的。
transmission n.传播(比如疾病);广播。
The transmission of germs can occur by contact, breathing, and eating.细菌通过接触、呼吸和饮食传播。
transformation n. (外观或性质的)改变,改观,转变。
His character seems to have undergone a complete transformation since his marrige.
他结婚之后性格判若两人。
transfer n.转移,转让;(工作的)调动;(旅途中的)换乘,改变路线。
The club's goalkeeper isn't happy here, and has asked a transfer.这个足球俱乐部的守门员在此过得不愉快,已经要求转会到其他俱乐部。
conversion-convert 事物的形式或用途改变,还可以指信仰尤其是宗教信仰的改变。
Britain converted to a decimal currency system in 1971.英国于 1971 年改用十进制货币体系。
He's converted to Catholicism.他已经皈依天主教。


练习:In order to keep the line moving, customers with lengthy...are required to do their banking inside.(17年真题)
A.transit B.transactions C.turnover D.tempos
The...from childhood to adulthood is always a critical time for everybody.(17年真题)
A.conversion B.transition C.turnover D.transformation


6.comprise, compose, consist, constitute, include
这一组动词都有"组成,包含"的意思。
comprise v.包含,包括,由……组成(整体);组成,构成。
Our company's product line comprises 2,500 different items.我们公司的生产线是由2,500 个不同的组成部分构成的。
compose v.构成(整体),组成;由……组成(后接 of,常用于被动语态);创作(作曲、诗歌等)。
The committee was composed mainly of teachers and parents.委员会主要由教师和学生家长组成。
consist v.组成,构成,由……组成(后接 of,常用于主动语态);(后接 in)在于,存在于。
The problem consists of two parts.问题由两部分组成。
The beauty of the plan consists in its simplicity.这计划的好处就在于简单易行。constitute v.构成,组成(整体)。
Crime and illegal drugs constitute the city's major problems.犯罪和非法毒品买卖是这个城市面临的主要问题。

练习:In the past, a woman’s world usually...household work and waiting for her children and husband to come home.(16年真题)
A. make up  B.composed of C.was comprised of D.consisted of


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