考研论坛

 找回密码
 注册

QQ登录

人人连接登陆

查看: 17241|回复: 45

[图书信息] 考研英语核心词汇说文解词

[复制链接]

102

主题

141

帖子

2254

积分

中级战友

Rank: 3Rank: 3

精华
17
威望
1396
K币
858 元
注册时间
2008-4-9
发表于 2010-8-20 15:27 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
全国考研英语词汇第一书

考研词汇黄皮书

考研英语核心词汇说文解词

曾鸣 张剑 霍岩编著

世界图书出版公司  出版

核心词汇说文解词封面.jpg

考研英语核心词汇说文解词

曾鸣 张剑 霍岩编著

定价:49.80

前  言

    《考研英语核心词汇说文解词》历经三年多的编辑修改,终于就要出版了。现就本书编写的相关情况介绍如下:
     2006年3月18日,编辑部召开编辑会议,决定编写考研词汇方面的图书。根据我们多年以来对市场和考生的跟踪调查,考生对词汇书的需求主要表现在以下几个方面:
    (1)对词汇的英英注释。这主要涉及到如何准确理解词义的问题。研究生考试的选拔性特征决定了它不同于四、六级的水平考试。《英语考试大纲》要求考生掌握5500左右的词汇以及相关词组。这些词汇与六级考试词汇的要求仅仅差别在200个词左右。为什么每年都有相当多的、通过六级考试的同学参加研究生考试时,却常常会不及格,从而错失改变人生命运的机会呢?这些同学反映出来的共同问题是:考生面对考题,每一个词汇“基本上”都似曾相识,但却无法对文章进行准确地理解。造成这一问题的原因主要有两个方面:
    首先,对词汇的各个义项掌握得不全面,只知其一,不及其余。在准备四、六级考试的时候,大部分词汇只需要准备两到三项词义即可,但考研词汇则通常考的是第四、第五,甚至是第七、第八项的词义,这就必然为我们词汇的复习增加了困难。
    其次,词汇的各个义项是随着语境的变化而变化的。如果不结合上下文来理解词义,显然是不可能准确地理解词义的。
    解决上述问题的方案有多种,但最有效的方式就是对词义本身进行英英注释。在英语的语境下来理解词汇的准确含义。基于此,我们选择了目前最权威的《牛津高阶英语词典(第七版)》(Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary),《朗文当代英语词典(第四版)》(Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English)两种经典词典,再辅以《柯林斯英语词典》(Collins English Dictionary)、《韦氏大学词典》(MerriamWebsters Collegiate Dictionary)等词典的注释来对我们精选的核心词汇进行注释。
    (2)词根联想串联记忆。这主要涉及到如何记忆词汇的问题。中国有句名言“不管黑猫白猫,能抓住老鼠的就是好猫”。每个考生在十多年的英语学习中都积累了一些行之有效的词汇记忆方法。如:近义词记忆法、形近词记忆法、词根记忆法、联想记忆法等等。在这些记忆方法中,时下最流行的也许就是联想记忆了。联想记忆法是从“单词→联想→词义”,这个过程实际上比通常将单词和词义直接对应,比通过死记硬背记忆单词的工作量更大。由于这部分“联想”的内容通常是荒诞不经的,颇具新鲜感和时代感,因而较能引起读者的共鸣。但是,一个单词和由它引发的“联想”之间往往没有必然联系,许多联想是很随意,甚至很牵强的。随着个人情感的好恶、社会生活以及身处时空的变化,我们的联系往往会失效。此外,如果读者绞尽脑汁地去试图把成千上万个单词都“联想”的时候,这些经过“联想”的单词已经不再具有新鲜感和时代感了,问题必然伴随而来:看到某个单词时,你不记得你曾经用什么素材来联想了,自然也就记不起该词的词义了。因此,我们的结论是联想记忆法不适合记忆大量单词。
    那么记忆词汇有没有更为科学的方法呢?编辑部对此进行了深入地分析和讨论,并总结出了以“词根记忆”为核心的丰富多样的记忆方法,主要包括词源、词根词缀、形象记忆、形近词串记、归类记忆、英汉同音记忆等。同时,在对词根“家族”进行分析说明时,基本上对每组词根都使用了图片或漫画的方式帮助记忆。此外,对部分多义项的词汇采取了有效的词义串联的记忆方法。
   (3)真题外刊例句注释。这主要涉及到如何使用词汇的问题。编辑部对精选的词汇的每一个义项都配有例句。例句的来源主要有两种:一是真题例句。我们精选了1986年以来的历年真题材料作为词义例句的首选。二是外刊例句。对在真题中无法找到相应例句的词义,我们通过外刊进行收集,这些外刊主要有:Time, Economist, Newsweek,USA Today,Nature,Business Week,US News,New York Times,International Herald Tribune,Guardian等,这些外刊材料都是最新的,也是我们命题专家经常使用的命题材料。
    编辑部对这三个方面的工作是分阶段完成的。2006年9月底,英英注释的工作基本完成。2006年底词根联想串联记忆工作基本完成。从2007年开始,编辑部在例句注释方面投入相当大的精力。由于我们积累了八年多的真题分析的经验,因此,在真题例句方面相对要容易一些。但是,对外刊例句的挑选,则是相当艰难。为了挑选一个最适合义项,我们的编辑往往需要几个小时,甚至几天的时间,才能找到该义项的例句。直到2008年5月初才基本完成了对词义例句的注释工作。
    初稿形成后,我们开始通过考研论坛和书店对读者进行调研。这次调研主要在内容格式和排版方面。在充分吸收读者建议的基础上,我们编辑部于2008年6月初完成了排版方面的工作。
    2008年7月后,本书进入了编辑和校对阶段,在这个阶段,负责本书编辑工作的同志对每一个词和句子都进行了精心的修改,并替换了大量的例句,力争做到精益求精。2009年研究生考试结束后,编辑部又增补了2009的真题例句,使本书的例句保持最新的注释。经过5个多月的辛勤工作,在2009年春节前终于完成了本书的编校工作。在编辑过程中,我们对词汇的含义用○标示;对短语搭配的含义用□标示;对扩充词汇的含义用大写的罗马数字(即Ⅰ,Ⅱ,Ⅲ等)标示,并使每一个例句均与相应的词义相对照,以便读者查对。
    2009年新学期开学后,我们的编辑和策划再次到书店与我们潜在的读者进行交流,针对部分读者反映我们的图书太厚(编辑稿达到了650页左右),可能会影响阅读和记忆的效果,编辑部决定对所收词汇进行精选,并对一些基础性的词汇进行了删减。精选后的核心词汇大约有1200多词,分为20个单元。为消除读者使用本书可能造成对大纲词汇掌握不全面的疑虑,编辑部决定对本书没有收录的词汇进行简单注释,并根据读者的建议,对每一个词均做了词频统计,形成了该书的赠送本:《大纲词汇速记手册》。
    如果本书能够得到读者和市场的认可,我们将对考研词汇出版成一个系列,暂且命名为“考研词汇ABC”。词汇系列A,即为本书,主要收录考研的一些核心的词汇,适合通过六级的考生使用;词汇系列B,暂定名为《考研英语基础词根+词缀》;词汇系列C,暂定名为《考研英语熟词僻义+短语搭配》。词汇系列的B和C,则主要给那些基础较差的读者使用。
    本书是编辑部集体研究的成果,前后参与词汇项目的编辑有十余人。项目总负责人为张剑和曾鸣老师,霍岩同志负责本书的后期编校工作,并参与了部分词汇的例句注释工作。
张剑锋2010年3月1日

目    录
Unit 1
●act, ag=to act做,行动,驱使
●alter改变,转变
●am, amat=to love爱
●anger 愤怒,激怒,使发怒
●ang, eng=angle角
●audi=to hear听
●aug,auc=to increase 增加
●author 作家,著者
●band,bond,bind,bound=to bind捆绑,束缚
●bar=bar横木
●bat=to beat击打
●bell=war 战争
●bio =life生命

Unit 2
●cay,cid,cas=to fall落下
●chalk 粉笔,白垩(一种石灰石)
●camp=field田野
●cand=white白色
●cap=head头,to take抓取
●car=car车,to run跑
●cast=to throw投掷
●cede,ceed,cess=to go去,to yield让步
●ceive,cept,cip,cipate=to take取
●center中心

Unit 3
●cern,cret=to separate分离
●cert=sure确定的
●circ,cyc=ring环
●cite=to call呼叫
●claim,clam=to cry大叫
●clare=clear清楚的,明白的
●clin=to bend弯曲
●clos,clud=to shut关闭
●cognis,gnos=to know知道
●cord=heart心
●corp=body实体

Unit 4
●count=to count计算
●cover=to cover遮盖
●cre=to grow生长
●cruc=cross十字,交叉
●cur,course=to run流,跑
●cure=to take care注意,留心
●dem=people民众
●dic,dict =to say说
●dign=worthy有价值的
●divide(使)分开,分配,使产生分歧
●doc=to teach教导
●dom=house房屋,家;domin=to rule统治
●don,dot,dow=to give给予
●dox=opinion意见
●draw 拉,引

Unit 5
●duc,duct=to lead领导
●dur=to last持续
●economy家政管理
●am,em=to take取
●equ=equal相等的
●fab=to knit做,编
●fac=face面部,正面
●front前面,正面
●fact,fect,fic=to make做,to do做,为
●fare=to go走

Unit 6
●fend,fest=to strike打击
●fer=to carry运,载
●fer=to make携带,带来
●fin=to end结束
●firm=firm坚固的,稳固的
●flect,flex=to bend弯曲
●form=to form形成,form形状
●force=strong强壮的
●found,fund=base基础
●fract,frag=to break打破
●fuse,fut=to melt溶化,熔化

Unit 7
●gener,gen,gent=to produce制造,生产,race种族,birth出生
●grad,gress=to walk行走
●gram,graph=to write书写
●grav=heavy重
●hab,hibit=to have拥有
●her=heir继承人
●her,hes=to stick粘着
●hum =ground地面
●insul=island岛屿
●integr=whole完整的
●it=to go走

Unit 8
●ject,jac=to throw投,掷
●join,junct=to join加入,连接
●journ=day一日
●jud=to judge判断
●just,juris= right正义,正确
●labor=to work工作
●laps=to slip,to glide滑,溜
●late=to bring带来,to bear搬运
●later=side侧面
●lav,lau=to wash洗
●lax,lyse=to loosen放松

Unit 9
●lect,leg,lig=to pick out选择
●leg=to send送,law法律
●lev=to raise升,举
●liber=free自由的
●lig=to bind绑,束缚
●liter=letter文字,文学
●loc=place地方,场所
●log(ue),loqu =to speak说话
●long=long长的
●illu(m)= light照亮

Unit 10
●magn,maj,max=great大,高
●man,manu=hand手
●mechan=machine机器
●med=to heal治疗
●medi=middle中间
●ment=to think想,mind心智
●merc=to trade贸易,reward报酬
●merge,mers=to sink沉没
●meter=to measure测量
●migr=to move移动
●min= to project突出
●mini=smaller较小,较少
●mir=to wonder惊讶

Unit 11
●miss,mit=to send送
●mod=manner方法,礼貌
●memor,mon =to remember记住,to remind提醒
●mort=death死
●mov,mob,mot=to move移动
●muni=service服务
●mut=to change改变

Unit 12
●neg=to deny否定
●nomin,nym=name名字
●norm=rule规则,norm标准
●not= note笔记,备忘录
●nounce,nunci=to report报告
●nov=new新的
●number,numer=number数,to count计数
●nur,nour,nutri=to nourish滋养,孕育
●opt=eye眼睛,to select选择
●order,ordin=order顺序
●ori=to rise升起,to begin开始
●pact =to fasten结紧
●part =part部分,要素
●pass =to pass 通过

Unit 13
●pass, pati, path = bad feelings不好的感觉
●part =father父亲
●ped = foot足,脚
●pel,puls=drive 推动,驱使,击打
●pen,pun =punish惩罚
●pend,pens= to hang悬挂,to weigh称重,to pay支付
●pet =to seek追求
●phan,fan =appearance样子,to appear出现
●phon,phet = sound声音
●plaud,plode =to burst out爆发
●ple,plic=to fold折叠

Unit 14
●plen=complete;full完整、充满
●poli(t) =state,city 国家,城市
●pos,pone,pound =to place,to put放,置
●preci =price,value价格,价值
●press =to press压

Unit 15
●prin,prim =first初,始
●pris,prehend =to seize抓住
●priv =private私人的
●proach =near接近
●prov,prob=to prove证实
●quire,quest =to seek or ask寻求,询问
●radi =ray光线
●rect =right; straight直的,正确的
●reg,rig =rule规则,to rule统治,治理
●rod =to bite咬
●rupt =to break 断

Unit 16
●sacr, sanct=sacred 神圣的
●sal,san=health健康
●sat=full满的
●scend=to climb 爬,攀登
●scop =to look看
●scribe,script =to write写
●sect,seg =to cut切割
●sess; side =to sit坐
●sens,sent=to feel感觉
●sequ =to follow跟随
●secut=to perform做,执行
●sert =to join加入

Unit 17
●serv =to serve服务,to keep保持
●sign =mark 标记
●simil,sembl=similar类似的
●sist,st,stitut=stand站立
●soci=companion伙伴,to associate
交往,联系

Unit 18
●sol,sole=sun太阳,alone单独
●solve=to loosen松开
●soph = wisdom聪明,智慧
●spec,spi=to look看
●sper,spair =hope希望
●sphere =ball球
●spir =to breath呼吸
●spond,spons =promise允诺

Unit 19
●stinct,sting =to sting刺
●str =to draw tight拉紧
●stru, struct =to build建造
●sume =to take拿
●sum = highest最高的
●sur =sure,secure肯定的,安全的
●tail =to cut切割

Unit 20
●tact,tain =to touch触摸
●tain,ten= to hold抓住,保持
●temper =moderate温和的
●tempt,tent =to try尝试
●tend,tens =to stretch拉伸
●term =end,limit结束,界限
●test = to testify证明
●text =to weave编织

Unit 21
●the =to place放,置
●tim=fear胆小的
●tort =to twist扭曲
●torn,tour =to turn转
●tract =to draw拉,抽
●tribut =to assign分派
●turb =to disturb搅乱
●us,uti=to use使用
●vac, van, void =empty空的
●vad =to go走
●vers, vert= to turn转

Unit 22
●vi(a),vey,voy=way路
●vict, vinc = to conquer征服
●vid,view,vis=to see看见
●vit,viv = to live生存,life生活
●voc,voke= to call喊
●volve, volut = to roll卷,转
●cracy=to rule统治

为了达到最好的使用效果,本书的新模板有以下5大变化:
1.词根分类:动作、名称等
2.词源讲解
3.例句调整(例句紧跟在相应的板块后,比如词义的例句、短语的例句、派生词的例句会分开)
4.词的增删,增补漏掉的核心词,删掉太简单的词
5.词义的重新整合

现征求同学的意见,欢迎广大同学提出宝贵意见!
Unit 1


●act, ag=to act做,行动,驱使
●author 作家,著者

●alter改变,转变
●band,bond,bind,bound=to bind捆绑,束缚

●am, amat=to love爱
●bar=bar横木

●anger 愤怒,激怒,使发怒
●bat=to beat击打

●ang, eng=angle角
●bell=war 战争

●audi=to hear听
●bio =life生命

●aug,auc=to increase 增加




词源讲解:

act是我们都熟悉的单词“做,行动”,我们也可以容易地通过act来记住这组词根。但其实,ag才是词根的本来面目,它来自拉丁文单词agere=to do,to drive。而由ag到act,一是自然的语音上的变通:k,g读音清浊相通[e.g school],二t的保留则是为了增强词根的衔接能力。对于词根构成的这两点规律,我们在以后的学习中会不断重提并给予补充。
act(因网站显示原因,本处音标从略)
[英汉双解]
【基】 vi.行动;举动,表现cn.行为,动作,举动
【串】 ①v. to pretend by your behavior假装[+n./a.] [近pretend, assume, simulate]n. sing.装模作样
②v. to perform a part in a play or film扮演(戏剧、电影中的)角色[近perform, play] n.(戏剧、歌剧等的)一幕;一段表演
③v. to perform a particular role or function充当;起作用[~ as/like sth][近function, serve, work]
④v. to have an effect on sth(对……)有影响 [~ (on sth)]
【僻】 n. a law that has been passed by a parliament(议会通过的)法令,法案 [近bill]
[真题例句]
1. In the atmosphere, carbon dioxide acts rather like a oneway mirror.在大气中,二氧化碳起着单面透视镜的作用。(1992阅读Text 2)
2. the Thatcher Government’s Broadcasting Act 《撒切尔政府广播法案》(1996阅读Text 2)
[外刊例句]
3. “I used to act dumb. It was an act. I am 26 years old, and that act is no longer cute,” Hilton said during the call.希尔顿在电话中说,“我过去常常哑,这是装模作样,现在我已经26岁了,这样的行为不再可爱了。”(2007 USA Today)
4. It acts on the nervous system to lower blood pressure.它对神经系统产生影响,使血压降低。(2006 Times)
[短语搭配]
1. act on sth: to take action as a result of advice, information, etc.根据(建议、信息等)行事
2. in the act (of sth/doing sth):while you are doing sth正在(做某事),当场
【真题】 1.Governments throughout the world act on the assumption that the welfare of their people depends largely on the economic strength and wealth of the community.世界各国政府都依据这样一种假设采取行动,即,本国人民的福利主要依赖于该国经济实力和社会财富。(2000翻译)
【例】 2. He was caught in the act of fraud.他行骗被逮个正着。(2003 Time)
[派生详解]
1. active(因网站显示原因,本处音标从略)a.活跃的,积极的,起作用的 [反inactive]
2. (active+ate动词词尾)activate(因网站显示原因,本处音标从略)vt.使活动,激活[近trigger]
3. (active+ity名词词尾)activity(因网站显示原因,本处音标从略)n. ① (为了兴趣或特定目的进行的)活动 ② 活跃,热闹
【真题】 1. The brain is as active during REM sleep... as it is when fully awake.快速动眼睡眠中大脑和完全清醒时一样起作用。(2005阅读Text 3)
2. Stimulants initially speed up or activate the central nervous system.兴奋剂最初加速或激活中枢神经系统。(1997阅读Text 3)
3. ...small regions of isolated volcanic activity known to geologists as hot spots 被地质学家称为热点的互不相连的小火山活动区(1998阅读Text 5)

action(因网站显示原因,本处音标从略)
[英汉双解]
【基】
n. 行动,行为;(一种物质或化学品对另一种所起的)作用[近 effect]

【串】
①a legal process to decide whether a person or a company has done sth wrong诉讼[近suit]

② fighting in a battle or war战斗,作战
③ the events in a story, play, ect; exciting events情节,故事;激动人心的事
[真题例句]
1. ...suggesting action which seems appropriate in the light of the factual and moral information which he has obtained. 建议根据他掌握的事实和道德方面的信息采取恰当的行为(2006翻译)
[外刊例句]
2. There should be immediate legal action against the site.应该立刻起诉该网站。(2008 U.S. News)
3. The books of thriller writers demand plenty of action.惊悚作家的作品要求情节曲折离奇。(2008 Economist)
4. Ozone is formed by the action of sunlight on two kinds of pollutants.臭氧是两种污染物在阳光的作用下而产生的。(2008 The New York Times)
[短语搭配]
1. (put sth)into action: to start making it happen or work实行,实施
2. a piece/slice of the action: a share or role in an interesting or exciting activity, esp. in order to make money插手,参与(尤指为了赚钱)
【例】 1. Its latest profit warning is due to the fact that the company has not been able to put its restructuring plan into action in France.这家公司最近发布盈利警告是因为它没能在法国实施其重组计划。(2007 International Herald Tribune)
2. With travel and social networking—two of the web’s hottest and most profitable properties, investors soon will get a piece of the action.对于网络中旅游和社交这两大热门的盈利板块,投资者很快会插一手捞好处。(2007 The Guardian)
actual(因网站显示原因,本处音标从略)
[英汉双解]
a. [用于名词前] ① used to emphasize sth that is real or exists in fact真实的,实际的[近real, true]
② used to emphasize the most important part of sth (强调事实最重要的部分)真正的……本身
[真题例句]
1. The mere presence of a grape in the other chamber (without an actual monkey to eat it) was enough to induce resentment in a female capuchin.只要在另一房间里出现了葡萄(即使并不真的有猴子吃它),都足以引起雌卷尾猴的怨恨。(2005阅读Text 1)
[外刊例句]
2. Fourteen years elapsed between preparation and completion, but the actual construction took only about three years. 从准备到完成共延续了十四年时间,而建造本身只花费了约三年时间。(2005 Topos)
[词汇扩充]
actually ad.(用于强调事实)的确,事实上;(表示想法与事实不一致而惊奇)居然,竟然
【例】 1. These intensely powerful mental events can be not only harnessed but actually brought under conscious control, to help us sleep and feel better.梦这种异常强烈的精神活动不仅能被驾驭,事实上还可以有意识地加以控制,以帮助我们更好地睡眠和感觉。(2005阅读Text 3)
2. ...some diseases not previously thought to have a bacterial cause were actually infections.一些以前被认为不是由细菌引起的疾病竟然也是传染病。(2008知识运用)
agenda
(因网站显示原因,本处音标从略)

[英汉双解]
cn. ① a list of items to be discussed at a meeting(会议的)议程表
② an organized plan for matters to be attended to 日常工作事项; 工作计划
[真题例句]
1. Our magazines feature beaming celebrities and happy families in perfect homes. And since these messages have an agenda—to lure us to open our wallets—they make the very idea of happiness seem unreliable. 我们的杂志刊登满面春风的名人和美满幸福的家庭。由于这样的信息都有一项任务——诱使我们打开钱包——从而使“快乐”的概念本身显得虚假。(2006 阅读Text 4)
[外刊例句]
2. The next item on the agenda is the publicity budget.议程表上的下一项是宣传预算。 (Dictionary)
agent(因网站显示原因,本处音标从略)
[英汉双解]
n. ① a person whose job is to act for or manage the affairs of other people代理人,经纪人

② a person or thing that has an important effect on a situation对事态起重要作用的人、事物[近factor]
[真题例句]
1. the site’s “personal search agent” 网站上的“个人搜索代理”(2004阅读Text 1)
2. Since much of the variation is due to genes, one more agent of evolution has gone.因为大部分差异是由基因引起的,所以进化的又一个因素消失了。(2000阅读Text 2)
[派生详解]
agency(因网站显示原因,本处音标从略)n.代理机构,经销机构;(政府的)专门机构[近branch, department]
【真题】
1. Manpower Inc., with 560 000 workers, is the world’s largest temporary employment agency. 拥有56万雇员的劳务公司是全球最大的临时就业中介机构。(1997知识运用)

2. a national drug agency一个国家药物机构(2005阅读Part B)
【短】
through the agency of: as a result of the action of sb/sth由于……的作用

【例】
the frosted matter being transported to lakes through the agency of floating ice这些通过浮冰作用进入湖中的结霜物质(2008 Nature)

agitate(因网站显示原因,本处音标从略)
[英汉双解]
v. ① to shake or stir a liquid quickly搅动,摇动(液体等)
② to argue strongly for sth you want激烈争论,鼓动,煽动[+ for/against sth]

③ to make sb feel angry, anxious or nervous使激动,使不安,激怒[+sb][近irritate, upset]
[外刊例句]
1.A number of MPs have started to agitate for a national strategy to be charted for the labour question, based on targets for reducing reliance on expatriates. 一些议员鼓吹建立有关劳工的国家策略以减少对于侨民的依赖。(2008 Economist)
2. It appeared to have agitated him, yet he stayed focus on the truth of the entire matter.这似乎已经激怒了他,但他仍然把注意力集中在整个事件的真相上。(2008 International Herald Tribune)
agony(因网站显示原因,本处音标从略)
[英汉双解]
n. extreme physical or mental pain苦恼, 极大的痛苦
[真题例句]
...the assisted—suicide debate has been fueled in part by the despair of patients for whom modern medicine has prolonged the physical agony of dying. ……致使医助自杀这场争论升温的部分原因是病人们的绝望情绪,对这些病人来说,现代医学延长了他们临终时肉体的痛苦。(2002阅读Text 4)
exact (因网站显示原因,本处音标从略)
[英汉双解]
vt. ① to demand and get sth from sb by using threats, force, etc索取,强求[+sth (from sb)][近levy]
a. ② (of sth) correct in every detail(事物)精确的,确切的[近precise, accurate;反inexact]
③ (of sb) very careful and thorough in what they do(人)严格的,严谨的
[词义串联]
强求(exact)某人做得很精确(exact)
[外刊例句]
Reid also believes that the county must exact more concessions from developers. 瑞德认为郡政府必须迫使开发商作出更多的让步。(2007 The Washington Post)
[词汇扩充]
Ⅰ exactly ad. 精确地,确切地;(要求得到更多信息)究竟,到底
Ⅱ exacting a. 要求严格的[近demanding]
Ⅲ exactitude n. 精确性,准确性
interact(因网站显示原因,本处音标从略)
[英汉双解]
vi. ① to have an effect on each other相互作用,相互影响[+with][近interplay]
② to communicate with sb相互交流,合作[+with]
[真题例句]
1. even the most influential members of a population simply don’t interact with that many others.即使是某个群体中最有影响力的成员也不会同那么多的其他人相互交往。(2010阅读Text 3)
[外刊例句]
2. social and economic factors interacting to produce a recession社会因素与经济因素相互作用造成经济衰退(Dictionary)
[词汇扩充]
Ⅰ interaction n.相互作用,相互影响;互动
Ⅱ interactive a. 相互影响的,互动的
【真题】
1. ...they have learned criminal behavior through interaction with others.他们受别人影响而学会了犯罪。(2004知识运用)

2. It’s an interactive feature that lets visitors key in job criteria such as location, title, and salary,
then E—mails them when a matching position is posted in the database.
其特点是互动性,这样访问者可敲入一些和工作标准相关的关键词,如:地点、职位和薪水等等,然后当资料库里贴出了相匹配的职位时,“代理”就会把这些信息用电子邮件发出去。(2004阅读Text 1)

react (因网站显示原因,本处音标从略)
[英汉双解]
vi. ① to change or behave in a particular way as a result of or in response to sth(对……)作出反应,回应[+(to sth) (by doing sth)][近respond]
② to show dislike or opposition in response to sth反对,反抗[+against sb/sth][近rebel]
[真题例句]
1. The judges on the Federal Circuit are reacting to the anti—patent trend at the Supreme Court,” …联邦巡回法院的法官们正在“最高法院的反专利趋势作出反应”(2010阅读Text 2)
2. ...in America the trend started as a reaction to the economic decline在美国,这种趋势一开始是经济衰落所做出的一种反应(2001阅读Text 5)
[外刊例句]
3. Look back to moments of rebellion when young people reacted against the established ideas.回顾年轻人抗拒固有观念的叛逆时期。(2006 The New York Times)
[词汇扩充]
Ⅰ reaction n. 反应,回应;抗拒,反对
Ⅱ reactive a. 反应的,回应的(而非原发的)
Ⅲ reactor n. 核反应堆
transaction(因网站显示原因,本处音标从略)
[英汉双解]
n. ① a business deal交易,业务,买卖[近deal]

② the process of doing business(业务等的)办理,执行[+ of sth]
[真题例句]
1. That ruling produced an explosion in business-method patent filings, initially by emerging Internet companies trying to stake out exclusive rights to specific types of online transactions.这项裁决带来了商业方法专利归档记录的爆炸式增长,起初是新兴网络公司试图获得对特定在线贸易的独占权。(2010阅读Text 2)
[外刊例句]
2. E-mails sent and received by the employees are considered public records if they contain information related to the transaction of public business.职员发送或接收的邮件如果含有与处理公共事务相关的信息,就被视为公共记录。(2007 The Washington Post)
[词汇扩充]
transact v.(与人或组织)做业务,做交易[+(sth)(with sb)]





词源讲解:
stand“站立”是我们熟悉的英语单词,它来自印欧语族的STA=to stand),并由此衍生出词根sta。而后,sta一方面进一步简化为st,另一方面又通过在末尾加送气的t音形成stat
而stat通过压缩a又形成stit(stitut实则是stit+-ute后缀形成),stit则又音变为sist。词根的含义也从“站”又引申出“停,形成、确立,处于、存在”等。
词源串记基础词:
stable能站住即“稳固牢靠的”,最初指“马房”马停的地方;
衍生出establish是e-(=ex-)+stable+-ish(动词后缀),含义即make stable“确立,使稳固”;
还有stall与stable一脉相承即place in a stable for animals“马厩”,后可指多种小隔间如“淋浴间、洗手间”和“货摊”;
stalk使植物直立的“茎、梗、秆”,与stall同源却变化得颇费周折不多说;
stem与stalk近义也指“茎、梗”,又演变出其他的“柄、颈、干”如“高脚杯的脚”“烟斗柄”和“词干”。
standard站立不变的是“标准”;stadium古希腊测量长度的标准(fixed standard for length),来自奥林匹亚的跑道长度,后即以“跑道”代指“体育场馆”。
stage站于其上表演的“舞台”(-age名词后缀表地点)。
stale音变自still“仍然”,过了保质期仍然站着即“不新鲜”,后也用于比喻“陈旧、乏味、疲沓的”。
state某一时所处的“状态、情况”;
status与它同源可以是所站的“地位”或也指某一时所处的“情形、状况”;
衍生出statistical实则有如下变化:statistics“统计学”即science dealing with data about the condition of a state“对反映总体情况的数据的研究”,构词是stat+-ist(名词后缀)+-ics(表示学科),然后-ics变为相应的形容词后缀-ical生成statistical“统计(学)的”;
status还有两个孪生兄弟statue和statute,statue站立的“塑像”及statute确立的“成文法;
条例、章程”不能混,statute多一个字母t单词变长含义也要更抽象;
最后state有一个加e的变体estate,英语中这样的例子不少见,e常加在st,sp等音前,如special与especial,establish也是多加上了e;
但estate逐渐由最初的表示“状态、情况”发展到“拥有土地、房产的状态”的含义,而如今则干脆就指“地产、私有地”。
static就是“站立不动的”,“不发展、不变化”是抽象含义,联系其反义词dynamic“动态的,变化的”一同记忆。
station原指所站的“岗位”,动词即“使去某岗位→部署安置”,后来衍生出“局、所,车站、军队驻地”等含义;
stationary加了形容词后缀-ary,就是像station一样站在某地“静止、不动的”;
stationery与stationary实在相像,来历却有些曲折:最初时只有大学经营的书店有固定的地址,stationer即“有固定店铺的人→书店店主”,当然也兼卖文具,后来文具竟反客为主,stationer变为“文具店店主,文具商”,stationery也即“文具”。
assist(因网站显示原因,本处音标从略)
[英汉双解]
v.① to help sb to do sth 帮助,协助[+(sb)(in/with sth), +(sb)(in doing sth)]
② to help sth to happen more easily 促进
[真题例句]
1. Finding ways to assist this growing homeless population has become increasingly difficult. 寻找办法来帮助日益增多的无家可归者变得越来越艰巨。(2006 知识运用)
2. It serves directly to assist a rapid distribution of goods at reasonable price... 它直接有利于商品以合理的价格快速地销售……(1995 阅读Passage1)
[派生详解]
1. assistance(因网站显示原因,本处音标从略)n.帮助,支持
2. assistant(因网站显示原因,本处音标从略) n.助理;售货员;助教(在国外学习的大学生抽时间教本国语)a.[仅用于名词前]助理的,副的
【例】 ... as the odds of having a weak elderly parent—and all the attendant need for physical and financial assistance—have jumped eightfold in just one generation. ……家庭中出现一个年老力衰的父(母)亲——以及随之而来的体力和经济援助的需要——的几率在一代人的时间里增加了八倍。(2007阅读 Text 3)

consist(因网站显示原因,本处音标从略)
[英汉双解]
v. ①[~ in] to have sth as the main or only part or feature存在于,在于
②[~of] to be formed from the things or people mentioned由……组成 (或构成)
[真题例句]
1. More families consist of one parent households or two working parents. 单亲家庭和双职工家庭越来越多。 (2004 知识运用)
[外刊例句]
2. Happiness consists in contentment.知足常乐。
consistent(因网站显示原因,本处音标从略)
[英汉双解]
a. ① always behaving in the same way, or having the same opinions, standards, etc.(行为、态度等)始终如一的[反inconsistent]
② (of an argument or set of ideas)having different parts that all agree with each other (论点或一系列的观点)相互连贯的
③ in agreement with sth; not contradicting sth 与……一致的,相符的[+with sth]

④ happening in the same way and continuing for a period of time 连续的,稳定持续的
[真题例句]
1.Cosmology, geology, and biology have provided a consistent, unified, and constantly improving account of what happened. 对于所发生的一切,宇宙学、地质学、生物学已经提供了连贯的、统一的并且是在不断完善的解释。 (1996阅读 Text 5)
[外刊例句]
2. Kids need predictability and structure in their environment but too often parents have difficulty being consistent in discipline.孩子的环境需要可预测性与合理安排,但更经常的情况是,家长会管教孩子时很难做到始终如一。(2010 peaceful-parenting. suite101)
3. Leadership brand is consistent with a firm’s brand, or identity in the marketplace. 处于领先地位的品牌是公司品牌或者公司在市场的地位相符合的。(2007 Businessweek)
4. The biggest challenge is continuing to drive consistent growth in a world that is more volatile and has less economic growth.最大的挑战是在更具变化、经济放缓的世界里保持经济的持续增长。(2005 Businessweek)
[词汇扩充]
Ⅰ consistently ad. 始终如一地;不断地,坚持不懈地
Ⅱ consistency n. 一致性,连贯性 [反inconsistency]; 粘稠度,密实度,平滑度,坚实度
【真题】
1. The findings of a research institution have consistently shown that...一家研究机构的研究结果一直表明……(2009阅读 Text 3)

【例】
2. And they have techniques that allow them to perform routine tasks with consistency and quality levels that are hard to beat.他们有方法保证日常工作的连贯性和难以超越的高水准。(2004 USA Today)

constant(因网站显示原因,本处音标从略)
[英汉双解]
a. ① [通常用于名词前] happening all the time or repeatedly连续发生的、重复的
②that does not change固定的、恒定的 [近fixed]
[真题例句]
1. This constant need to prove that one is as good as or better than one’s fellow competitor creates constant anxiety and stress, the very causes of unhappiness and illness.这种需要不断证明一个人和他们的竞争对手同样优秀或更加出色的局面造成持久的焦虑和紧张,而这正是不幸与疾病的根源。(1993 阅读Text2)
2. For each dollar of GDP (in constant prices) rich economies now use nearly 50 less oil than in 1973.富裕国家国内生产总值(以目前价格计算)中,每一美元所消耗的石油量比1973年少了近一半。(2002年 Text 3)
constituent(因网站显示原因,本处音标从略)
[英汉双解]
n. ① one of the parts of sth that combine to form the whole 成分,构成
② a person who can vote in a constituency (选区的)选民,选举人
a. ③[仅用于名词前] forming or helping to make a whole 构成的,组成的
[真题例句]
1. The interdependence of the forest and its constituent tree species, ground flora, and fauna is taken for granted. 森林和树种、地面植物、动物这些组成森林的因素之间的相互依存,被视作理所当然。(2010翻译)
〖CS%100,0,0,0〗[外刊例句]〖CS〗
2. They might not all have clean air yet, but these 15 metros saw the steepest declines in ground-level ozone pollution-the primary constituent of smog. 它们也许还不都有清新的空气,但这15条地铁经历了地下臭氧污染的最大幅度的下降,这些是组成烟雾的主要成分。(2007 Businessweek)
[词汇扩充]
constituency n. (选举议会议员的)选区;选区选民的意见;(政治上的)支持者
constitute
[英汉双解]
vt. ① to be considered to be sth 被认为或看作是……;被算作
② to be the parts that together form sth 组成;构成[近make up ]
③ to form a group legally or officially (合法或正式地)成立,设立
[真题例句]
1. “Large numbers of physicians seem unconcerned with the pain their patients are needlessly and predictably suffering,” to the extent that it constitutes “systematic patient abuse.” “许多医生对病人遭受不必要的、可预见的痛苦无动于衷”,甚至构成“蓄意虐待病人”。(2002 阅读Text 4)
[外刊例句]
2. Women still constitute the majority of carers—the most under-regarded and worst-paid job in the economy—and that needs to be tackled. 在护工这一最受轻视、工资最低的行业中,女性仍然多数,这一问题需要处理。(2007 The Guardian)
3. The best efforts of the committee to contribute to human rights protection has been vitiated by either the unwillingness or inability of the government to take its advice seriously. In fact, violations have increased since the committee was constituted.因为政府不愿意或者说没有能力认真考虑它的意见,委员会保护人权的最大努力失败了。事实上,自委员会成立以来,违犯行为有所上升。 (2004 USA Today)
constitution(因网站显示原因,本处音标从略)
[英汉双解]
n. 宪法;章程
身体素质,体格
③ the way sth is formed or organized; the act of forming sth构造[近structure];组成,形成
[外刊例句]
1. Manipulating the genetic constitution of plants and then selecting characteristics that suited human needs was the only way available to humankind. 利用植物的基因结构选择适合人类需要的特性是人类唯一可采取的方法。(2004 Nature)
2. The committee was planning to recommend constitution of a district-level body, comprising farm scientists, officials and farmers representatives. 委员会正准备提议建立一个由农业科学家、官员和农民代表组成的地区级机构。(2008 New Karala)
[词汇扩充]
constitutional a. [用于名词前] 宪法的,章程的; 宪法准许的, 受宪法或章程限制的 [反unconstitutional];身体素质的,体格的 n. 保健散步
【真题】 Although it ruled that there is no constitutional right to physician assisted suicide, the Court in effect supported the medical principle of “double effect”... 宪法没有赋予医生协助病人自杀的权利,然而最高法院实际上却认可了“双效”的医疗原则……(2002 阅读Text 4)
distant(因网站显示原因,本处音标从略)
[英汉双解]
【基】 a. ①遥远的,久远的
【串】 ② not like sth else不同的 [+ (from sth)]
③ not friendly; not wanting a close relationship with sb疏远的;[仅用于名词前]远亲的
④ not paying attention to sth but thinking about sth completely different心不在焉的
[外刊例句]
1. The population that is most genetically distant from Africans are Amerindians.在基因上与非洲人差异最大的人种是美国印第安人(Amerindians是American Indians的缩写)。(2010 Discovery)
2. He(Bruno Senna) even has that brooding, slightly distant-look in his eyes that Ayrton Senna was famous for.他(布鲁诺·塞纳)甚至有着阿雅顿·塞纳曾因其而闻名的忧伤神秘、略带迷茫的眼神。(2009 Rightpedal)
[派生详解]
distance(因网站显示原因,本处音标从略) n. ① 距离,间距;遥远,久远 ② 冷淡;疏远 v. 不介入;与……疏远[+yourself sb/sth (from sb/sth)]
【真题】 They were thought of, like people, in terms of generations, with the distance between generations much smaller. 像人一样,电脑也按“代”来划分,而且代与代之间的间隔越来越小。(2002知识运用)
exist(因网站显示原因,本处音标从略)
[英汉双解]
vi. 存在
② to live, esp. in poverty or a difficult situation(尤指在贫困或困境中)生活,生存 [+(on sth)]
[外刊例句]
Some 3.3 million elderly people exist on incomes that are below the individual poverty level of $2730 a year. 大概330万老龄人口只依靠微薄的收入生存,他们的收入水平要低于一年2730美元的贫困线。(2007 Time)
[派生详解]
existence(因网站显示原因,本处音标从略) n. ① 存在,实有 ② (艰难或无聊的)生活,生活方式
[词汇扩充]
Ⅰ existent a.存在的,实有的[反nonexistent ] n.存在(或实有的)事物
Ⅱ existential a.[仅用于名词前] (关于)人类存在的; (关于)存在主义的
Ⅲ existentialism n.存在主义
Ⅳ existing a.[仅用于名词前]现存的;现行的
【真题】
However, none of these requirements should deter large retailers and even some large food producers and existing wholesalers from trying their hand... 然而,这些要求都不能阻止大型零售商,甚至一些大型食品生产商和现有的批发商初试身手……(2010阅读Part B)

install(因网站显示原因,本处音标从略)
[英汉双解]
vt. ① to fix equipment or furniture into position so that it can be used 安装,设置
② to put sb in a new position of authority, often with an official ceremony(常以正式仪式)使就职,任命[+sb (as sth)]
③ to make sb/yourself comfortable in a particular place or position 安顿,安置[+sb/oneself]
[外刊例句]
1. Cruise control can be installed on virtually any vehicle with a mechanical throttle linkage, which only excludes some newer vehicles with electronic throttle systems.恒速操纵器能够借助一个机械油门安装在几乎任何车上,除了有电动阀门系统的新款车。 (2005 Businessweek)
2. Even if women are installed as leaders, it is also important to bear in mind that they might be limited in building up local support. 即使妇女被任命为领导,一个事实仍需重视:她们也许在取得本地支持方面仍会受到限制。(Books Google)
3. Once we had installed ourselves in our comfortable room, we submitted to weight and blood pressure checks, answered a catalogue of general health questions and were invited to discuss our health and exercise “goals”. 一旦我们在舒服的房间中安顿好后,我们就开始体重和血压检测,回答一系列涉及健康方面的问题并且讨论我们的健康和锻炼“目标”。(Independent)
[派生详解]
installation(因网站显示原因,本处音标从略)n. ① 安装;安装的设备(或机器);设施 ② 就职仪式
【例】 But anything that complicates installation of the patch is a disservice to the purchasers of Microsoft products and also to the Internet community。任何使安装补丁过程复杂化的现象都是对微软用户和网络用户的伤害。(2001 Businessweek)
installment(因网站显示原因,本处音标从略)
[英汉双解]
n. ① one of a number of payments that are made regularly over a period of time until sth has been paid for (分期付款的)一期付款
(报刊连载小说的)一节;(电视里连续剧的)一集[近episode]

instant(因网站显示原因,本处音标从略)
[英汉双解]
a. ①[常用于名词前]happening immediately 立即的,立刻的
②[仅用于名词前]速食的,速溶的,方便的(instant coffee 速溶咖啡)
n.[C,常用单数]③ a very short period of time; a particular point in time瞬间,片刻;某一时刻
[真题例句]
1. Satellites have extended the power of communications to report events at the instant of occurrence. 卫星已拓展了通讯能力,可以在事发当时对事件进行报道。(1995阅读 Text 3)
[外刊例句]
2. Consumers with electronic accounts have instant access to online information such as account balances and interest rates. 有电子账户的顾客可以立刻通过网络查看余额和利息。(1998 Businessweek)
3. Young consumers have shown that they’ll switch their loyalty in an instant to marketers that can get ahead of the style curve. 年轻的顾客可以很快把他们的忠诚转向引领时尚的商家。(1999 Businessweek)
[派生详解]
1. instance(因网站显示原因,本处音标从略)n. 例子,实例,事例 v. 举例
2. instantaneous(因网站显示原因,本处音标从略)a. 立即的,瞬间的
【真题】 1. Research on animal intelligence also makes us wonder what experiments animals would perform on humans if they had the chance. Every cat with an owner, for instance, is running a small-scale study in operant conditioning.动物智力的研究也让我们思考:如果动物有机会的话,它们会对人类做什么样的实验。比如说,每只有主人的猫都在进行一个小规模的操作条件反射研究。(2009知识运用)
【例】 2. In our world, where communication is instantaneous, news and entertainment can be had at the click of a mouse. 在我们的世界中,通讯很迅速,一点鼠标就能看到新闻和娱乐资讯。(2007 Businessweek)
insist(因网站显示原因,本处音标从略)
[英汉双解]
vi.① to demand that sth happens or that sb agrees to do sth 坚决要求,坚持[+(on sth/on doing sth)]
② to say firmly that sth is true, esp. when other people do not believe you 坚持说,固执己见[+(on sth),+that…]
[真题例句]
1. Do you remember all those years when scientists argued that smoking would kill us but the doubters insisted that we didn’t know for sure? 还记得科学家们认为吸烟会使我们丧命,而那些怀疑者们却坚持认为我们无法对此得出定论的时候吗? (2005阅读Text 2)
[外刊例句]
2. It is worth the money, as long as we do it right and insist on a return on our investment. 只要我们正确行事,坚持要求我们的投资有所回报,那这就是物有所值的。(2010 logisticsviewpoints.com)
[词汇扩充]
Ⅰ insistence n. 坚决要求;坚持;固执
Ⅱ insistent a.坚决要求的;固执的;持续不断的,反复的
【例】 1. They are happy to throw more money at them, but unwilling to challenge the dominance of the educational establishment, with its bizarre theories and insistence on “education” degrees for all teachers.他们愿意投资更多的钱,但不愿意挑战教育机构的权威,包括其中一些奇怪的理论以及老师必须有教育职称。(2006 Businessweek)
2. In service businesses, where relationships are the bread and butter, increasingly insistent calls are usually best. 服务行业里面处理关系是最重要的,坚持打电话越来越成为最好的方法。(1996 Businessweek)
institute(因网站显示原因,本处音标从略)
[英汉双解]
vt. ① to introduce a system, policy, etc. or start a process 建立,制定(体系政策等);实行
n. (教育,专业等)机构,机构建筑
[真题例句]
1. According to the Canadian Institute for Health Information... 加拿大医疗信息学的资料表明……(2005 阅读Part B)
[外刊例句]
2. It was important to disseminate the information gained, in order to institute changes in clinical practice. 为了在临床实践中进行改革,将得到的信息进行传播是很重要的。(2002 Nature)
institution(因网站显示原因,本处音标从略)
[英汉双解]
n. ① the act of starting or introducing sth such as a system or a law 建立,制定
(银行、大学等规模大的)机构;慈善机构,社会福利机构
③ a custom or system that has existed for a long time among a particular group of people (由来已久的)风俗习惯,制度
④ a person who is well known because they have been in a particular place or job for a long time(某地或工作中)出名的人
[真题例句]
1.One place where children soak up A-characteristics is school, which is, by its very nature, a highly competitive institution. 学校是培养A型孩子的场所,从本质来讲,学校是一个高度竞争性的机构。(1995 阅读Text 4)
2. The southern states would not have signed the Constitution without protections for the “peculiar institution,”... 如果没有对这种“奇特的制度”的保护性条款,南方各州是不会签署宪法的。(2008 阅读Text 4)
[外刊例句]
1. The committee should take every precaution—including the institution of policies and procedures—to prevent transplanting the wrong organ.委员会应该采取一切预防措施,包括制定政策和程序,以避免错误的器官移植。 (2004 Books)
2. You must know him—he’s an institution around here. 你一定认识他——他是这一带的名人。(Dictionary)
[词汇扩充]
Ⅰ institutional a. [多用于名词前]机构的;慈善机构的
Ⅱ institutionalize v. 将(某人)送到收容机构;使成惯例;使制度化
Ⅲ institutionalized a.[贬]约定俗成的,成惯例的;(人因长期生活在福利机构)缺乏自理能力的
【真题】 1. ...and they(computers) became “personal” too, as well as institutional, with display becoming sharper and storage capability increasing.而且随着显示效果越来越清晰及存储量越来越大,电脑已不只是团体机构的用具,也成了个人的用具。(2002 知识运用)
【例】 2. Analysis and synthesis frameworks concepts might provide some guidance to corporations in how to institutionalize an innovation. 分析、集体框架理念也许会对公司怎样把革新制度化提供一些启示。 (2008 Businessweek)
3. The view of the mentally disabled has transformed from institutionalized patients to that of friends, neighbors and athletes. 对有智力缺陷的人的看法有所改变,不再把他们看成缺乏自理能力的病人,而是把他们视为朋友、邻居和运动员。 (2007 USA Today)
resist(因网站显示原因,本处音标从略)
[英汉双解]
v. ① 抵制,反对;反抗,抵抗
② [常用于否定句] to stop yourself from doing sth you want 忍住,克制
③ to not be harmed or damaged by sth使不受……的伤害;抗(伤害)
[真题例句]
1. It takes the most cool-headed and good-tempered of drivers to resist the temptation to revenge when subjected to uncivilized behavior. 司机需要非常冷静的头脑和好脾气才能在碰到不文明行为时克制住自己不进行报复。(1992 阅读 Text
1)

[外刊例句]
2. Smugglers resist arrest, sometimes with rocks or even gunfire against agents who generally patrol alone in remote regions where backup can be an hour away. 走私者经常捕,在那些警察后备力量赶来要1小时的偏僻的地方,他们用石头甚至用枪和孤立无援的警察对抗。(2005 Businessweek)
3. Scientists say they’ve discovered how some monkeys resist infection with the AIDS virus, a finding that might lead to a treatment that blocks HIV in people. 科学家宣称已经发现了猴子是怎样艾滋病毒的感染,这也许会有助于发现截断艾滋病毒在人群传播的处理方法。(2004 USA Today)
[派生详解]
1. resistance(因网站显示原因,本处音标从略)n. [+(to sb/sth)]①抵制;反抗 (armed resistance武装反抗);抗力,抵抗力②阻力;热阻,电阻
2. resistant(因网站显示原因,本处音标从略)a. 抵抗的,抵制的;有抵抗力的[+(to sth)];[构成形容词]抗……的;耐……的
【真题】 1.Quebec’s resistance to a national agency is provincialist ideology. 魁北克对国家机关的抵制是地区意识。(2005 阅读 Part B)
2. Writing for National Immigration Forum, Gregory Rodriguez reports that today’s immigration is neither at unprecedented levels nor resistant to assimilation. 在为“国家移民论坛”撰稿时,格瑞·罗德里格兹报道说,如今的移民既未达到历史最高峰但也不排斥同化。(2006阅读Text 1)
【例】 3. The two viruses might then combine into a mutant strain to which humans would have no resistance. 这两种病毒也许会合并变成另外的品种,人们对它没有一点抵抗力。(2004 Businessweek)
4. Sometimes when markets fall quickly below a support level, there is no resistance when the market reverses because there was little buying on the way down.有时当市场很快下降到低于支撑价位时,市场反弹时就会没有阻力,因为下降时几乎没有什么购买现象。(2007Businessweek)
[词汇扩充]
Ⅰ resister n.抵制者,抗拒者,反抗者
Ⅱ resistible a. 可抵制的,可抗拒的 [反irresistible]
Ⅲ resistor n. 电阻器
【例】
But behind those resistible offers and fake prize-draws lies an important change in marketing. 但是在可抗拒的供应和虚假的报价背后,存在的是市场的重要变化。 (1999 Economist)

substance(因网站显示原因,本处音标从略)
[英汉双解]
n. ① a type of solid, liquid or gas that has particular qualities 物质,东西
② the quality of being based on facts or the truth 事实基础,根据
③ the most important or main part of sth 主旨,实质
④ importance 重要性[近significance]
[真题例句]
1. Technically, any substance other than food that alters our bodily or mental functioning is a drug. 从严格意义上说,除食品外,任何能改变我们生理和心理机能的物质都是药物。(1997 阅读 Text 3)
[外刊例句]
2. All the old stories, myths and legends are dragged out to give substance to the book. Even an extract from a U.S. committee on penal colonies is given in an effort to give credibility. 所有的老故事、神话和传奇都被拿来为这本书提供事实根据。作者甚至采用了美国罪犯流放地委员会的一段摘录来努力增加书的可信度。(2009 Amazon)
3. A 21st century communicator must stress simplicity without losing the substance of his or her message.21世纪的交流者必须强调简洁,同时不忽视他或她所要传达信息的基本内容。(2005 Businessweek)
4. Most seem pleased to be involved and amazed to be consulted on matters of substance. 许多人都喜欢参与进来,并在被询问对于重大事件的意见时感到震惊和激动。(1994 Time)
[短语搭配]
a man/woman of substance:
a rich and powerful man or woman
有钱有势的男人、女人
【例】
Originally, magistrates were recruited from men of substance anxious to perform civic duty. Today, the underpaid magistrate has become the refuge of law graduates who fear failure as lawyers. 最初大法官是招聘自那些有钱有势并渴望服务社会的人。今天低薪酬的法官则成为那些害怕不能胜任律师的法律系毕业生的避难所。(1955 Time)

[派生详解]
substantial(因网站显示原因,本处音标从略)a. ①大量的,价值巨大的,重大的[近considerable] ②[多用于名词前]大而坚固的,牢固的
【真题】 1. Retailers that master the intricacies of wholesaling in Europe may well expect to rake in substantial profits thereby.因而那些掌握了欧洲批发业复杂流程的零售商很可能会赚得丰厚利润。(2010阅读Part B)
2. the American Law Institute—a group of judges, lawyers, and academics whose recommendations carry substantial weight美国法学会——一群说话举足轻重的法官、律师、学者(1999阅读Text 1)
[词汇扩充]
Ⅰ substantially ad. 非常;大大地[近considerably];基本上,大体上,总体来说
Ⅱ substantive a. 实质性的,本质上的;重大的,严肃认真的
Ⅲ substantiate n. 证实,充实
【真题】 1. In response, schools are modifying their programs, adapting instruction to children who are exceptional, to those who cannot profit substantially from regular programs. 作为回应,学校也在调整课程安排,使授课能够适应表现突出的儿童,适应那些不能从常规课程中真正获益的儿童的需要。(1994 阅读 Text
4)

2. You should go through the paper many times—and then again—working to substantiate and clarify your ideas. 记住这只是初稿,你还要反复阅读,然后努力阐明并论证自己的观点。(2008阅读Part B)
【例】 3. These surveys provide a partial yet substantive answer to the call for transparency on climate change risk and response.公众要求环境变化危险性及应对政策的透明化,这些调查为这些要求提供了部分的但是实质性的答案。(2008 Businessweek)
substitute(因网站显示原因,本处音标从略)
[英汉双解]
v. ① to take the place of sth else; to use sb/sth instead of sb/sth else (用……)代替,取代[+A (for B), +B (with / by A), +for sb/sth]
n. 代替者,代替物 [+(for sb/sth)];替补(运动员)
[真题例句]
1. In talking to some scientists, particularly younger ones, you might gather the impression that they find the “scientific method” a substitute for imaginative thought. 在和一些科学家,特别是年轻科学家交谈时,你可能会有这样一种印象:他们认为“科学方法”可以代替创造性思维。(1999阅读Text 5)
[外刊例句]
2. The declining price of capital and the rising price of labor are strongly encouraging companies to substitute capital for labor. 资本价格下降而劳力价格上涨促使许多公司用资本代替劳力。(2000 Businessweek)
superstition(因网站显示原因,本处音标从略)
[英汉双解]
n. the belief that particular events happen in a way that can’t be explained by science and can bring good or bad luck 迷信;迷信观念(或思想)
[词汇扩充]
superstitious a.迷信的;有迷信观念的

基础词补充
establish(因网站显示原因,本处音标从略) v.①建立;设立 ②确立;使稳固;得到认可③查实;确定
【真题】 1. Later, more established companies raced to add such patents to their files.后来越来越多老牌公司也竞相将此类专利归入自己的案卷中。(2010阅读Text 2)
2. Happily, the older and more continental view of legal education is establishing itself in a number of Canadian universities.可喜的是,加拿大的许多大学正在树立更传统、更具欧洲大陆特色的法律教育观点。(2007翻译)
3. All these conditions tend to increase the probability of a child committing a criminal act,20a direct causal relationship has not yet been established.所有上述情况都会增加青少年犯罪的可能性,虽然其中的直接因果关系还没有得到证实。(2004知识运用)
【派】 establishment(因网站显示原因,本处音标从略)n.①机构;旅馆 ②(the Establishment)(统称)权威人士;权势集团 ③建立;确立
estate(因网站显示原因,本处音标从略)
n.
①(通常指农村)大片私有土地
②住宅区;工业区
③个人财产

stable(因网站显示原因,本处音标从略) 【基】 a.稳定的,安定的 [反unstable] n. 马厩,马棚v. 使马入厩 【串】 n. ①某人拥有的赛马 ② (在同一地方工作或训练的)一批人,(同一公司生产的)系列产品
【派】 stability(因网站显示原因,本处音标从略) n. 稳定(性),安定(性) [反instability]
【真题】 Yet these creatures are members of the biotic community, and if its stability depends on its integrity, they are entitled to continuance.然而这些动物都是生物群落中的成员,如果这个群落的稳定依赖于它的完整的话,那么这些动物就有权继续生存下去。(2010翻译)
stage(因网站显示原因,本处音标从略)【基】 n. ①时期,阶段 ②步骤 ③舞台 ④(政治等活动的)领域【串】 vt.①上演,举办 ②组织,筹划 ③使发生,使出现
【例】 SSA workers stage slowdown due to appointment of new personnel. SSA工人因新的人事任免而发起怠工。(2010 Vob929)
【短】 set the stage for sth使某事成为可能,为某事铺平道路
stalk(因网站显示原因,本处音标从略)【基】 n. 茎,梗【僻】 v.① 悄悄地跟踪(以伤害、抓住等) ② 怒气冲冲地走,趾高气昂地走
【词源】 stalk作v. 表示“悄悄跟踪”的用法来自steal“偷”,类似的例子如talk来自tell;而它表示“趾高气昂”或“怒气冲冲地走”则是前一义的反义同源演变。
【例】 She claimed that he had been stalking her over a period of three years.她宣称他在三年的时间里一直在悄悄跟踪她。
stall(因网站显示原因,本处音标从略) 【基】 n. ①牲畜棚②[用复数]小隔间,淋浴间,洗手间 ③货摊摊位;(尤指集市上的)售货亭[近stand]【串:站立不动→】 n.(车辆发动机的)熄火;(车辆的)抛锚;(飞机的)失速v. ①(使)熄火,抛锚 ② 暂缓,搁置 ③故意拖延(以赢得时间)[+(on/over sth)];拖住(某人)[+sb]
【例】 1. Most people tend to slam on the brakes when confronted with an emergency—a stalled car on the highway, for example.绝大多数人在路上遇到紧急情况时,比如遇到高速公路上熄火的车,都会急刹车。 (1995 Businessweek)
2. Oil output has stalled, and it’s not clear if the capacity exists to raise production. 石油输出已经停止,并且产量是否还有增加潜力也不得而知。(2007 Businessweek)
3. Local carriers can’t stall on making the necessary network upgrades for long. New competition is emerging from wireless companies and from cable operators, which are starting to roll out fast modems that provide Internet access over cable. 地方运营商不能长时间拖延做必要的网络升级。无线网和有线电视运营商已经开始加入竞争,他们开始运用高速解调器实现网络和有线的合并。(1996 Businessweek)
state(因网站显示原因,本处音标从略) n.①状态,情况 ②国家;州,邦 ③正式礼仪,隆重仪式 v.① 陈述,说明 ② 规定,公布
【真题】 They can help students acquire a sense of commitment by ...having clearly stated rules. 成人可以通过……制定明确的规则来培养他们的责任感。(2004知识运用)
【短】 1. get into a state兴奋,紧张 2. the state of play进展情况,局势
【派】 1. statement(因网站显示原因,本处音标从略) n. ①声明,陈述 ②结算单,报表 ③评估报告
2. statesman(因网站显示原因,本处音标从略) n.政治家,国务活动家
stem(因网站显示原因,本处音标从略) 【基】 n. (花草的)茎,(树木的)干 【串】 ①茎状部分,(尤指)高脚酒杯的颈,烟斗柄 ②词干 ③血统 v. 来自或起源于[+from sth] 【僻】 vt. 遏制,阻止
【词源】 同stalk类似,stem作v.表示“阻止”也是来自另一个简单动词,即stop“停止”。
【真题】 The researchers’ argument stems from a simple observation about social influence.研究人员的观点源于对社交影响的一个简单观察。(2010阅读 Text 3)
【短】 stem the tide/flow/flood of sth阻止某事的发生,发展


回复

使用道具 举报

474

主题

1万

帖子

25万

积分

荣誉站务

北交大版退休版主

Rank: 9Rank: 9Rank: 9

精华
141
威望
123361
K币
127284 元
注册时间
2008-1-6

论坛站务考研论坛2010年上半年优秀版主

发表于 2010-8-20 18:08 | 显示全部楼层
沙发!

不错!
发帖前请仔细阅读考研论坛的发帖须知
考研网(kaoyan.com)对外窗口,欢迎关注: 新浪微博 | QQ微博 | 人人公共主页 | QQ认证空间
-----我们的人生将通往哪一站?-----凑合着来吧!
回复

使用道具 举报

62

主题

839

帖子

2516

积分

中级战友

Rank: 3Rank: 3

精华
0
威望
57
K币
2459 元
注册时间
2010-8-4
发表于 2010-9-1 12:45 | 显示全部楼层
现在用太晚了吧。。。。
回复

使用道具 举报

头像被屏蔽

76

主题

8630

帖子

2万

积分

Banned

精华
0
威望
250
K币
22681 元
注册时间
2005-10-11
发表于 2010-9-8 15:20 | 显示全部楼层
提示: 作者被禁止或删除 内容自动屏蔽
回复

使用道具 举报

6

主题

95

帖子

402

积分

一般战友

Rank: 2

精华
0
威望
20
K币
382 元
注册时间
2009-7-12
发表于 2010-9-10 17:41 | 显示全部楼层
好!
回复

使用道具 举报

0

主题

1517

帖子

6899

积分

高级战友

Rank: 4

精华
0
威望
1750
K币
5149 元
注册时间
2010-4-24
发表于 2010-9-11 22:17 | 显示全部楼层

建议出一本特色的乱序排列的

像新东方内本绿色的乱序的 但是要比他的有特色 绝对的大卖相信我 乱序绝对是一种走势!!  支持世纪高教~
回复

使用道具 举报

0

主题

11

帖子

46

积分

新手上路

Rank: 1

精华
0
威望
10
K币
36 元
注册时间
2010-9-13
发表于 2010-9-13 18:41 | 显示全部楼层
张剑的书很厉害,淘宝上有一家店铺超低价在销售,叫做楼夏图书专营店,我已经在这家店铺买了很多书了,质量很不错很不错,当当也还好,就是慢了点
回复

使用道具 举报

0

主题

1

帖子

4

积分

新手上路

Rank: 1

精华
0
威望
0
K币
4 元
注册时间
2010-9-12
发表于 2010-9-13 23:09 | 显示全部楼层
谢谢分享~~~~~~~~~~~~
回复

使用道具 举报

1

主题

34

帖子

82

积分

新手上路

Rank: 1

精华
0
威望
0
K币
82 元
注册时间
2010-4-20
发表于 2010-9-16 17:48 | 显示全部楼层
我还是喜欢星火的
一名考生
回复

使用道具 举报

头像被屏蔽

76

主题

8630

帖子

2万

积分

Banned

精华
0
威望
250
K币
22681 元
注册时间
2005-10-11
发表于 2010-9-26 15:26 | 显示全部楼层
提示: 作者被禁止或删除 内容自动屏蔽
回复

使用道具 举报

您需要登录后才可以回帖 登录 | 注册 人人连接登陆

本版积分规则   

关闭

您还剩5次免费下载资料的机会哦~

扫描二维码下载资料

使用手机端考研帮,进入扫一扫
在“我”中打开扫一扫,
扫描二维码下载资料



关于我们|商务合作|小黑屋|手机版|联系我们|服务条款|隐私保护|帮学堂| 网站地图|院校地图|漏洞提交|考研帮   

GMT+8, 2019-11-18 06:24 , Processed in 0.125084 second(s), Total 10, Slave 10(Usage:10.75M, Links:[2]1_1,1) queries , Memcache On.

Powered by Discuz!

© 2001-2017 考研 Inc.

快速回复 返回顶部 返回列表
× 关闭