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张剑1986-1999年真题解析

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2009-5-24
发表于 2009-9-8 20:35 | |阅读模式
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1986年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题

Section I Close Test

For each numbered blank in the following passage, there are four choices labeled [A], [B], [C] and[D. Choose the best one and put your choice in the brackets below the passage. Read the whole passage before making your choices. (10 points)
①On Wednesday afternoons Annie took the bus into town to shop in the market. ②For an hour or   1   she would walk up and down between the stalls looking at everything, buying here and there, and   2   a sharp lookout for the bargains that were sometimes to be had. ③And then, with all the things she needed   3   she would leave the market for the streets of the town to spend another hour   4   she liked best: looking in furniture shop windows.
④One Wednesday she found a new shop full of the most delightful things, with a notice inviting anyone to walk in and look   5   without feeling they had to buy something. ⑤Annie hesitated for a moment before stepping through the doorway where, almost at once, she stopped   6   before a green armchair. ⑥There was a card on the chair which said: “This fine chair is yours   7   less than a pound a week,” and very small at the bottom, “Cash price eighty-nine pounds fifty.” ⑦A pound a week...  8  , she could almost pay that out of her housekeeping money and never miss it! ⑧A voice at her shoulder made her   9  . “Can I help you, Madam?” ⑨She looked round at the assistant who had come softly to her   10  .
⑩“Oh, well, no,” she said. “I was just looking.” ○11“We’ve chairs of all kinds in the showroom. If you’ll just come up, you will find something to suit you.”
○12Annie, worried at the thought of being persuaded to buy something she didn’t need, left the shop hurriedly. [276 words]
1. [A] so                        [B] more                        [C] else                [D] another
2. [A] taking                [B] making                [C] fixing                [D] keeping
3. [A] buy                        [B] bought                        [C] buying                [D] to have bought
4. [A] in a way                [B] by the way                [C] in the way        [D] on the way
5. [A] behind                [B] round                        [C] back                [D] on
6. [A] doubted                [B] wondered                [C] puzzled        [D] delighted
7. [A] at                        [B] for                        [C] with                [D] in
8. [A] Why                [B] When                        [C] How                [D] What
9. [A] jump                [B] leap                        [C] laugh                [D] wonder
10.[A] place                [B] back                        [C] side                [D] front

一、文章结构分析
本文记叙了一位女士一次购物的经历。
第一段总述文中主人公Annie每周三下午都进城购物。二至四段具体讲述了她某一次的购物经历。

二、试题具体分析
1.  [A] so这么,那么                                [B] more更多
[C] else其他的,别的                        [D] another另外一个
本题考核的知识点是:固定搭配+副词用法。
[快速解题]空格所在部分For an hour or   1  是句子的时间状语,考生要判断选项中哪个副词代入能符合这一结构并使文意通顺。…or so是固定搭配,用在数字之后,表示“…左右,…上下”,for an hour or so指“一个小时左右”,说明了时间,符合文意。因此选[A]so。  
[篇章分析]文章第①句总说,交待人物(Annie)、时间(每周三下午)、地点(城镇)、活动内容(购物)。②③具体讲述活动内容:首先购买所需物品(②句),然后到家具店“橱窗购物”(③句)。句间通过On Wednesday afternoons—For an hour or so—And then—another hour时间链条,in the market—up and down between the stalls—(leave the market)for the streets—furniture shop地点链条实现衔接。
[空格设置]此处考查so用作副词的一个惯用语…or so,表示约指,例句:There were 20 people or so there.那儿差不多有20个人。
[干扰项设置]其他项都是常用的副词。else用于疑问句或nothing,something,everybody等之后,如:What else did he say?他还说了些什么?or else意为“要不然,否则”,是连词词组,引导句子,如:Hurry up or else you’ll be late.快点,否则你就要迟到了。
2. [A] taking                [B] making        [C] fixing                [D] keeping
本题考核的知识点是:固定搭配。
[快速解题]空格处填入的现在分词其宾语为a sharp lookout for,与上文两个分词短语looking at…, buying…并列,都是句子谓语动词的伴随状语,共同描述人物的购物行为。lookout来自动词短语look out(留心寻觅;当心,提防),指“观察所,瞭望台(人员)”,keep a lookout (for sb/sth)为固定短语,意为“注意,留心”,它代入文中,指“敏锐地留意有时会出售的便宜货”,符合文意,因此选[D] keeping。
[篇章分析]②句较长,主干为she would walk,副词短语up and down(来回地)与介词短语between the stalls(穿梭于售货摊之间)都是walk的状语,分别表示方式与地点;looking…,buying…and keeping…三个并列的分词短语是walk…stalls的伴随动作。其中在keeping…分词短语中又含有一个that引导的定语从句修饰bargains。
[空格设置]本题考查动词短语,其中中心动词keep与宾语lookout都可设空。例句:The public should keep a lookout for symptoms of the disease.公众应当留心这种疾病的症状。
[干扰项设置]其他项都是常用的简单动词,但不符合搭配。
3. [A] buy                        [B] bought                [C] buying                [D] to have bought
本题考核的知识点是:独立结构。
[快速解题]空格所在部分是“with+逻辑主语(all the things she needed)+__3__”独立结构,在句中做状语,其中she needed是省略了关系代词that的定语从句,后置修饰things,即“她需要的所有东西”。[A]buy是原形动词,不用于独立结构中。[D]to have bought是不定式的完成式,用在这里不符合文意。[B]bought和[C]buying分别为过去分词和现在分词,由于things与buy是被动的逻辑关系,因此选[B],即“她需要的所有东西都(被)买好之后”。
[篇章分析]③句主干是she would leave the market for the streets of the town,句首with…独立结构表示时间,to spend…不定式短语做目的状语。leave…for…表示“离开(某地)去……”。
[空格设置]本题考查由介词with引导的独立结构。其中逻辑主语all the things和过去分词bought之间为一个省略了关系代词的定语从句she needed,构成解答本题的最大障碍。
[干扰项设置]其他项都设置为动词buy的不同形式,需要考生理清句子结构作出判断。
4.  [A] in a way在某种程度上,不完全地
[B] by the way顺便提一下,问一句
[C] in the way(…)以……的方式       
[D] on the way即将去(或来);在路途中
本题考核的知识点是:固定搭配辨析。
[快速解题]由选项可知,空格处填入一个以way为中心名词的介词短语。根据文意,只有in the way代入文中文意通顺,即“以她最喜欢的方式再度过一小时”,因此选[C]。
[篇章分析]空格部分in a way…是to spend的方式状语,其中she liked best是省略关系代词that的定语从句,后置修饰way。冒号后的现在分词短语looking in…为the way的同位语,解释说明她再度过一小时的方式。
[空格设置]way是含义丰富的简单词,也可构成许多固定搭配。它在文中取“方式,手段”的意思,如:Infectious diseases can be acquired in several ways.传染病的感染途径有几种。因它在文中后边接有定语从句,故前用定冠词the限定修饰。in the way还可构成固定搭配,意为“妨碍,挡路”,如:I left them alone, as I felt I was in the way.我让他们单独在一起,因为我觉得我碍他们的事。
[干扰项设置]干扰项中都是way的常用固定搭配。例句:In a way it was one of our biggest mistakes.从某种意义上来说,这是我们所犯最大错误之一。What’s the time, by the way?顺便问一句,几点钟了?The letter should be on its way to you.那封信该快到你那了。She stopped for breakfast on the way.她中途停下吃早点。
5.  [A] (look) behind朝后面看  [B](look) round环视,四处看;转过头看
[C](look) back 回首,回顾  [D](look) on旁观;把……看作;(以某种方式)看待
本题考核的知识点是:短语动词。
[快速解题]空格所在部分是介词结构with a notice inviting…,做后置定语修饰a new shop,现在分词短语inviting…与notice之间是主动关系,说明通知的内容。空格处填入的副词与look构成短语动词,与walk in并列,在invite sb to do sth结构中都充当invite的宾语补足语。这部分的含义是:(商店贴出告示)邀请所有人进来并且……看看。既然是逛商店,应该是“四处看”,[B]round符合文意。
[篇章分析]④句承接上文,引出Annie一次具体的橱窗购物经历,下**是对这次经历的具体讲述。④句通过One Wednesday,a new shop(特指时间和地点)与第一段中On Wednesday afternoons,furniture shop(泛指时间和地点)的呼应,实现语段衔接。
[空格设置]本题考查由look构成的短语动词,是常规考点。例句:People came out of their houses and looked around.人们走出家门四处查看。Let’s look round the town this afternoon.咱们今天下午游览市区吧。She looked round when she heard the noise.她听到响声,就回过头去看。
[干扰项设置]其他项的副词都可与look搭配,其中look back与look on是固定短语。例句:to look back on your childhood回顾自己的童年。Passers-by simply looked on as he was attacked.他遭人袭击,路人只在一旁袖手旁观。She’s looked on as the leading authority on the subject.她被视为这门学科的主要权威。They looked on his behavior with contempt.他们对他的行为不屑一顾。
6.  [A] doubted怀疑的,不能肯定的                [B] wondered
[C] puzzled迷惑不解的                                [D] delighted高兴的,愉悦的
本题考核的知识点是:上下文语义。
[快速解题]空格处填入一个过去分词形式的形容词,做she的主语补足语,描述主语的状态,即当她(Annie)看到一把绿色的扶手椅时,她停下了,……。注意该句实际表示的含义是she stopped and she was   6  。从下文我们可看出,这把椅子对Annie有吸引力,因此,此处表示的应该是她的一种积极的情绪,只有delighted符合文意。delighted也与短首句中delightful相呼应。wonder可以表示“感到诧异,惊讶”,但它常用sb wonders主动形式,其过去分词较不常见。
[空格设置]本题通过考查形容词实际考查了对上下文的理解。另外,这里也涉及形容词做主语补足语的语法知识。
[干扰项设置]wonder可意为“想知道,琢磨”,常用~ about sth或接wh-从句;或指“感到惊讶”,常用~at sth或接that从句,如:She wondered at her stupidity.她没想到自己竟会这样愚蠢。它对delight构成同向干扰,但用法错误。doubted与puzzled构成对delighted的反向干扰。
7. [A]at                [B]for                 [C]with                [D]in
本题考核的知识点是:介词用法。
[快速解题]空格处填入的介词后接钱数(less than a pound)做其宾语,表示椅子的价格。能够单独使用表示价格的只有for,因此选[B]。注意at也可以表示价格,但通常与sell,price(定价)等动词连用。
[空格设置]本题考查了for的特殊用法。for可意为in exchange for sth“换取,交换”,如:Copies are available for two dollars each.两元一份。for表示交换还常与以下动词搭配:bid/charge/offer+钱数+for sth(出价,竞标/收费,要价/出价,报价)。
[干扰项设置]其他项都是常用介词。at可以表示价格、比率、速度等,意为“以……,在……”,如:old books selling at ten cents each以每本一角(的价格)出售的旧书;The tickets are priced at $100 each.每张票定价为100元。with可以表示工具,意为“使用,以,借”,如:Cut it with a knife.用刀把它切开。in可以表示使用的语言、材料等,如:I paid in cash.我用现金支付的。
8. [A]Why                [B]When                [C]How                [D]What
本题考核的知识点是:感叹词。
[快速解题]空格所在句子(⑦句)描述了Annie看到广告后的心理活动。空格前是省略句,是对上文(This fine chair is yours for less than) a pound a week关于椅子价格的重复;空格后是结构完整的句子,说明人物的所想。空格用逗号隔开,填入一个插入成分,独立于前后两部分的结构之外,对句意起补充说明的作用。选项是四个疑问词,可直接引导句子;但why还可以做感叹词,用于表示“惊讶、不耐烦”等,常单独使用,用逗号与其他部分隔开,符合文中用法;它代入文中,表明Annie对椅子的低价格的惊叹,符合文意,因此选[A]。其他项都不符合文中语法要求,应排除。
[空格设置]本题考查了why的熟词僻义。why基本用法是做疑问副词,询问原因。它也可充当关系副词,引导名词性从句或引导以the reason为先行词的定语从句。但它还有做感叹词的特殊用法,例句:Why, it’s easy—a child could do it!哎呀,这容易得很,连小孩子都干得了!
[干扰项设置]干扰项中都是常用的疑问词,并也都可做关联词引导从句。when是疑问副词,询问时间;或用作关系副词,引导名词性从句或定语从句,如:Sunday is the only day when I can relax.星期日是我唯一可以休息的日子。它也用做连词引导时间等状语从句,如:I loved history when I was at school.我上学时喜欢历史。how也是疑问副词,用以询问方式等;或做关系副词,引导名词性从句,如:Do you remember how the kids always loved going there?你记得孩子们总喜欢去那里吗?它有时也引导状语从句,相当于however,如:I’ll dress how I like in my own house.我在自己家里爱怎么穿就怎么穿。what是疑问代词,用于指物,意为“什么”;或用作关系代词,引导名词性从句,如:What you need is a good meal.你需要的是一顿美餐。what可单独使用,表示提问(没听见或没听懂时,或听到对方的话后问对方要什么),或表示惊讶或愤怒,如:‘Mummy!’ ‘What?’ ‘I’m thirsty.’“妈咪!”“什么事?”“我渴。”‘It will cost $500.’‘What?’“这东西要花500元。”“真的?”
9.  [A] jump跳,跃                [B] leap跳跃,跳越
[C] laugh笑                        [D] wonder想知道,琢磨
本题考核的知识点是:上下文语义+动词辨析。
[快速解题]空格处填入一个动词,在make sb do结构中做her的宾语补足语,说明肩膀上传来的声音使她(Annie)产生的行为。根据文意及常识,当Annie在专心致志地看广告语时,突然传来的声音应当使她“吓一跳”,而不可能是“笑”或“想”,首先排除[C],[D]两项。[A]jump及[B]leap都可指“跳”的动作,但文中显然是比喻的说法,而并不一定是真的“跳起来”,jump可指 “(因吃惊、害怕或激动而)猛地一动,突然一跳”,更符合文意,因此选[A]。  
[空格设置]本题考查了常用动词jump的熟词僻义。例句:Her heart jumped when she heard the news.听到那消息她的心猛地一跳。
[干扰项设置]其他项都是常用动词且符合文中的语法要求。其中leap构成对jump的近义干扰。jump仅表示“跳”的一般动作,即离开地面或物体表面的“跳,跃”,也指“跳过,跃过”,如:to jump into the air/the last hurdle跳到空中/跨越最后一个栏杆。leap强调to jump high or a long way“跳得高或远”,如:The horse leapt a five-foot wall.那匹马跃过了一道五英尺高的墙。二者都可指“快速移动,突然移动”,leap可引申指“突然做某事”,如:leap into action。二者还都引申为“猛涨,激增”。
10. [A] place地点,位置,区域;表面的某处,身体某处;座位;地位,资格,名额
[B] back背部,后部,背面,(书等的)末尾
[C] side一边,一侧,侧面,边缘,肋;近旁,身边;一方,一派;方面
[D] front正面,前面,前部,胸部;前线,阵线;表面,外表,掩护
本题考核的知识点是:上下文语义+名词辨析。
[快速解题]该句是说明Annie在听到有人说话后的反应:她转过头看着悄悄来到她……的店员。空格处填入一个名词,说明店员所处的相对Annie的位置。根据文意,既然是转头看(look round at),[D]“来到她前面”可首先排除;店员应该是来到顾客的“身侧”与他们交谈,[A]“来到她的位置”,[B]“来到她的背后”也不符合语境,可排除。因此[C]正确。side也与上文at her shoulder相呼应。
[空格设置]本题考查了side表示“身旁”的特殊用法。例句:keep close to my side紧挨着我。
[干扰项设置]其他项都是可以表示方位或身体部位的常用名词。
全文翻译
每周三的下午安妮会乘公交车到城里的市场上去买东西。大约一个小时,她会在货摊间走来走去,查看商品,时不时买点什么,同时敏锐地留心有时有售的便宜货。然后,买全了她所需要的所有物品后,她会离开市场,到城里的街道上去,再花上一小时做她最喜欢做的事:透过家具店的橱窗往里看。
一个星期三下午,她发现一家新开的家具店,店里都是非常讨人喜欢的东西,店外贴着一张告示,邀请所有的人进去四处看看,但不必非要买什么东西。安妮在迈过门道前犹豫了一会,而几乎就在同时,她充满欣喜地在门口处一把绿色的扶手椅前停住了。椅子上有一张卡片,上面写着:每周只需花不到一磅,这把精美的椅子就是你的了。底部是非常小的字体:现金价格89.5磅。一周一磅……,嘿,她几乎可以节省每周的家用开支来为它买单,从而不会错过它!“您有什么需要的吗,女士?”从肩膀上传来的一个声音使她吓了一跳。她转过头看着悄悄来到她身边的店员。
“噢,嗯,没什么,”她说,“我只是看看。”“我们的展示间里有各种各样的椅子。如果你进来看看,你会找到适合你的东西。”
安妮担心自己会被说服买并不需要的东西,匆匆离开了商店。

Section II        Reading Comprehension

Each of the two passages below is followed by five questions. For each question there are four answers. Read the passages carefully and choose the best answer to each of the questions. Put your choice in the brackets on the left. (10 points)

Text 1
①There are a great many careers in which the increasing emphasis is on specialization. ②You find these careers in engineering, in production, in statistical work, and in teaching. ③But there is an increasing demand for people who are able to take in great area at a glance, people who perhaps do not know too much about any one field. ④There is, in other words, a demand for people who are capable of seeing the forest rather than the trees, of making general judgments. ⑤We can call these people “generalists.” ⑥And these “generalists” are particularly needed for positions in administration, where it is their job to see that other people do the w** they have to plan for other people, to organize other people’s work, to begin it and judge it.
①The specialist understands one field; his concern is with technique and tools. ②He is a “trained” man; and his educational background is properly technical or professional. ③The generalist — and especially the administrator — deals with people; his concern is with leadership, with planning, and with direction giving. ④He is an “educated” man; and the humanities are his strongest foundation. ⑤Very rarely is a specialist capable of being an administrator. ⑥And very rarely is a good generalist also a good specialist in particular field. ⑦Any organization needs both kinds of people, though different organizations need them in different proportions. ⑧It is your task to find out, during your training period, into which of the two kinds of jobs you fit, and to plan your career accordingly.
①Your first job may turn out to be the right job for you -- but this is pure accident. ②Certainly you should not change jobs constantly or people will become suspicious of your ability to hold any job. ③At the same time you must not look upon the first job as the final job; it is primarily a training job, an opportunity to understand yourself and your fitness for being an employee.

一、词汇
1. generalist 通才                                        2. humanities 人文学科

二、长难句
1. But there is an increasing demand for people who are able to take in great area at a glance, people who perhaps do not know too much about any one field.
句子主干为there is an increasing demand for people … people,两个people后分别接有who引导的定语从句做后置定语。
翻译:但对那些一眼就能注意到很大区域、可能对任一领域都知之不多的人的需求也在增加。
2. And these “generalists” are particularly needed for positions in administration, where it is their job to see that other people do the w** they have to plan for other people, to organize other people’s work, to begin it and judge it.
句子主干为these “generalists” are particularly needed,介词短语for positions in administration做状语,意为“对于管理职位而言”。两个where引导的并列定语从句做后置定语修饰先行词positions in administration,where相当于in which(=positions in administration)。第一个where从句的主干为it is their job to see that …,其中that引导宾语从句。第二个where从句的谓语为并列的结构have to plan…(have) to organize和(have) to begin。
翻译:管理职位尤其需要这样的“通才”,在管理职位上“通才”的职责是:确保他人完成工作,必须为他人制定计划,组织他人的工作,发起工作且对工作做出评判。
3. It is your task to find out, during your training period, into which of the two kinds of jobs you fit, and to plan your career accordingly.
句子主干是It is your task to find out …and to plan your career,其中it为形式主语,真正的主语为后面的不定式结构to find out …and to plan your career,find out后接into which引导的宾语从句,该从句也可改为which of the two kinds of jobs you fit into,之间插入的介词短语during …做时间状语。
翻译:你的任务是在训练期间从两种工作中发现适合自己的那一种,并对自己的职业作出相应的规划。

三、文章结构分析
本文涉及社会人才。文章介绍了社会需要的两类人才,并对人们在工作培训期间的任务以及对待第一份工作应采取的态度提出建议。
第一段:指出在大量职业日益强调专业性的同时,社会对通才的需求也在增加,并介绍了通才的特点和主要的工作内容。
第二段:分别指出专家和通才这两类人才各自的所长、二者的关系、组织对其需求状况、并指出人们在工作培训期间的主要任务是发现自己属于哪一类人才。
第三段:就人们对待第一份工作应采取的态度提出建议。

四、试题具体分析
11. There is an increasing demand for ________.        11.(社会)对_____的需求在增加。

[A] all round people in their own fields        [A]自己所在领域内的多面手
[B] people whose job is to organize other people’s work        [B] 组织他人工作的人员
[C] generalists whose educational background is either technical or professional        [C] 具有技术或专业教育背景的通才
[D] specialists whose chief concern is to provide administrative guidance to others        [D] 主要为他人提供管理指导的专家
[分析]本题考核的知识点是:事实细节题。
第一段③④句指出,对“一眼即能看到很大范围,可能对任一领域都知之不多;能够看到森林而不是树木,能够做出总体判断”的人的需求在日益增加。⑤句将这一类人定义为通才。⑥句指出,管理领域尤需通才来组织他人的工作。题干和[B]选项为该部分内容的概括,people 即指通才。
[A]选项错在in their own fields。all around people 是generalist的近义替换,但文中并没有将通才的了解范围限定为自己的领域。[C]、[D]选项混淆了通才和专家的描述而形成干扰。whose educational background is either technical or professional是对专家的描述(第二段②句);whose chief concern is to provide administrative guidance to others是对通才的描述(第一段末句)。
12.        The specialist is ________.        12. 专家是______。
[A] a man whose job is to train other people        [A] 对他人进行培训者
[B] a man who has been trained in more than one fields        [B] 在不只一个领域受过培训者
[C] a man who can see the forest rather than the trees        [C] 能见森林而非树木者
[D] a man whose concern is mainly with technical or professional matters        [D] 关注对象主要为技术或专业问题者

[分析]本题考核的知识点是:概念细节题。
第二段①②句指出,专家的主要关注对象是技术和工具,他受过恰当的技术或专业教育。[D]选项是对这两句内容的概括,为正确选项。
[A]选项利用动词train作为干扰,专家是“受过培训者”而非“培训他人者”。[B]编造了文中没有的信息in more than one fields,故排除。[C]选项张冠李戴,该内容为对通才的描述。
13. The administrator is ________.        13. 管理者是_____
[A] a “trained” man who is more a specialist than a generalist        [A] 更倾向于是受过良好培训的专家而非通才
[B] a man who sees the trees as well as the forest        [B] 既能看到树木又能看到森林的人
[C] a man who is very strong in the humanities        [C] 非常擅长人文学科者

[D] a man who is an “educated” specialist        [D] 受过良好教育的专家
[分析] 本题考核的知识点:概念细节题。
第二段③句指出了通才,尤其是管理者的工作对象和工作内容。紧接着④句指出,人文学科是他最坚强的基石。[C]选项为④句的同义改写,为正确选项。
[A]、[D]选项反向干扰,第二段⑤句明确指出,鲜有专家能够胜任管理者。从第二段的描述可知,管理者更倾向于是通才,[B]选项偷梁换柱,将通才的特点see the forest rather than the trees改为see the trees as well as the forest。
14. During your training period, it is important________.        14. 在你的培训期间,____非常重要。
[A] to try to be a generalist        [A] 努力成为通才
[B] to choose a profitable job        [B] 选择高收益的工作
[C] to find an organization which fits you        [C] 选择适合你的机构
[D] to decide whether you are fit to be a specialist or a generalist        [D] 决定你是适合做专家还是通才
[分析] 本题考核的知识点是:作者观点细节题。
根据题干的时间关键词during your training period定位到第二段末句。该句指出,在培训期间,你的任务是从两类工作(two kinds of jobs)中找到适合你的一种,并作出相应的职业规划。根据上文可知,two kinds of jobs即指“专家”和“通才”。故[D]选项正确。[A]与文义不符,[B]、[C]文中未提及。
15. A man’s first job ________.        15. 一个人的第一份工作_____。
[A] is never the right job for him        [A] 永远不会是适合他的工作
[B] should not be regarded as his final job        [B] 不应该被看做他的最后一份工作
[C] should not be changed or people will become suspicious of his ability to hold any job        [C] 不应更换,否则人们会对他保住工作的能力产生怀疑
[D] is primarily an opportunity to fit himself for his final job        [D] 从根本上讲是使其适合最终工作的一次机会
[分析]本题考核的知识点是:作者观点细节题
根据题干关键词first job定位到文章最后一段。该段③句指出,不要把你的第一份工作看做最后一份工作,[B]为正确选项。
该段①句指出,你的第一份工作有可能恰好是适合你的工作,[A]选项不合文义。[C]选项偷梁换柱,将②句中should not change jobs constantly改为should not change your first job,从而与原文产生意义偏差。[D]选项错在final job。③句指出,第一份工作是一个认识自己和自己工作专长的机会,而不是使自己适合最终工作的机会。

五、全文翻译
大量职业在日益强调专业性。这类职业常见于工程、生产、统计、教学领域。但对那些一眼就能注意到很大区域、可能对任一领域都知之不多的人的需求也在增加。换言之,社会需要那些能够看到森林而非树木、能够做出总体判断的人。我们可以称这些人为“通才”。管理职位尤其需要这样的“通才”,在管理职位上“通才”的职责是:确保他人完成工作,必须为他人制定计划,组织他人的工作,发起工作且对工作做出评判。
专家精通某一领域;他关注的是技术和工具。他是“受过良好训练”者;他有良好的技术或专业教育背景。通才,尤其是管理者,与人打交道;他关注的是领导、规划及方向设定。他是“受过良好教育”者;人文学科是其最坚强的基石。鲜有专家能够胜任管理者。同样,优秀的通才很少同时也是某一特定领域的优秀专家。任何组织都同时需要这两种人,虽然组织不同,需求的比例亦不同。你的任务是在训练期间从两种工作中发现适合自己的那一种,并对自己的职业作出相应的规划。
你的第一份工作可能恰好是适合你的工作——但这纯属巧合。当然,你不应频繁更换工作,否则人们将怀疑你是否有能力保住一份工作。同时,你也一定不要把第一份工作看做最后一份工作;它主要是一份培训工作,一个认识自己和自己工作专长的机会。

Text 2
①At the bottom of the world lies a mighty continent still wrapped in the Ice Age and, until recent times, unknown to man. ②It is a great land mass with mountain ranges whose extent and elevation are still uncertain. ③Much of the continent is a complete blank on our maps. ④Man has explored, on foot, less than one per cent of its area. ⑤Antarctica differs fundamentally from the Arctic regions. ⑥The Arctic is an ocean, covered with drifting packed ice and hemmed in by the land masses of Europe, Asia, and North America. ⑦The Antarctic is a continent almost as large as Europe and Australia combined, centered roughly on the South Pole and surrounded by the most unobstructed water areas of the world -- the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans.
①The continental ice sheet is more than two miles high in its centre, thus, the air over the Antarctic is far more refrigerated than it is over the Arctic regions. ②This cold air current from the land is so forceful that it makes the nearby seas the stormiest in the world and renders unlivable those regions whose counterparts at the opposite end of the globe are inhabited. ③Thus, more than a million persons live within 2,000 miles of the North Pole in an area that includes most of Alaska, Siberia, and Scandinavia -- a region rich in forest and mining industries. ④Apart from a handful of weather stations, within the same distance of the South Pole there is not a single tree, industry, or settlement.

一、词汇
1. mighty 巨大的,非凡的                2. elevation 高度                        3. Antarctica 南极地区       
4. Arctic 北极地区                                5. drifting 漂移的       
6. hem sb/sth in包围,限制(某人/某事物)                                7. unobstructed 无障碍的
8. refrigerated 冰冷的                        9. inhabited 有人居住的        10. Alaska 阿拉斯加
11. Siberia西伯利亚                        12. Scandinavia 斯堪的纳维亚

二、长难句
1. The Antarctic is a continent almost as large as Europe and Australia combined, centered roughly on the South Pole and surrounded by the most unobstructed water areas of the world -- the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans.
句子的主干为The Antarctic is a continent,名词continent后为三个并列的后置定语almost as large as…,(which is) centered roughly on …和(which is) surrounded by …。
翻译:南极地区是一块面积几乎等于欧洲和澳洲之和、以南极为大致中心的大陆。其周围环绕着世界上最为广阔的水域——大西洋、太平洋及印度洋。
2. This cold air current from the land is so forceful that it makes the nearby seas the stormiest in the world and renders unlivable those regions whose counterparts at the opposite end of the globe are inhabited.
句子的主干是This cold air current from the land is so forceful that …,so … that引导结果状语从句。that从句的主干是it makes the nearby seas the stormiest and renders those regions … unlivable,谓语动词make和render都接有“宾语+形容词宾补”的结构。render所接结构中,宾补unlivable提前到宾语those regions前,因为该宾语后接有较长的后置定语,即whose引导的定语从句。
翻译:来自大陆的冷气流的强度足以让附近的海洋成为世界上暴风雪最为肆虐的地方,使南极区域成为无法居住的地区,而在地球另一端同样的位置却有人居住。

三、文章结构分析
本文是一篇地理方面的说明文。文章通过与北极地区做对比,介绍了南极地区的地理状况、人类对其探索程度、该地区的气候及不可居住性。
第一段:介绍南极地区的地理状况,及人类对其探索程度。
第二段:介绍南极地区的气候及其不适宜居住性。

四、试题具体分析
16. The best title for this selection would be ________.        16. 本节选部分的最佳题目是______。
[A] Iceland        [A] 冰川
[B] Land of Opportunity        [B] 机会的土地
[C] The Unknown Continent        [C] 未知的大陆
[D] Utopia at Last        [D] 最终的乌托邦
[分析] 本题考核知识点是:文章主旨题。
文章第一段介绍了人类对南极地区的探索程度以及南极地区的地理状况。第二段介绍了南极地区的气候条件,并通过与北极地区的气候条件做比指出该地区不适合居住。可见,本文是一篇介绍南极地区的文章。而文章①句说明,南极地区是一片非凡的的大陆。②至④句指出,南极地区山川的跨度和高度尚未确定、其大部分地区在我们的地图上都是空白、人们已探索的面积尚不足该大陆的百分之一,即,人类对南极大陆知之甚少。 综合以上分析,[C]选项正确,The Unknown Continent 即指南极大陆。
文章并非只局限于对极地冰川的介绍,排除[A]选项。文章也并未指出南极地区蕴藏着丰富的机会,排除[B]。[D]选项和文章内容相反,文中指出,南极气候不适合人类居住,而并非生活的乐土。
17. At the time this article was written, our knowledge of Antarctica was ________.        17. 在撰写本文时,我们关于南极的知识____。
[A] very limited        [A] 非常有限
[B] vast        [B] 范围很广
[C] fairly rich        [C] 相当丰富
[D] nonexistent        [D] 不存在
[分析]本题考核知识点:细节概括题。
第一段②至④句指出,南极地区山川的跨度和高度尚未确定、其大部分地区在我们的地图上都是空白、人们已探索的面积尚不足该大陆的百分之一。[A]limited为“人们对南极了解程度”的正确概括。
18. Antarctica is bordered by the ________.        18. 南极地区的边缘为____。
[A] Pacific Ocean        [A] 太平洋
[B] Indian Ocean        [B] 印度洋
[C] Atlantic Ocean        [C] 大西洋
[D] All three        [D] 以上三个都包括
[分析]本题考核的知识点是:事实细节题。
第一段末句指出,南极大陆被大西洋、太平洋和印度洋所包围。[D]选项正确。
19. The Antarctic is made uninhabitable primarily by ________.        19. 南极地区不适宜居住的主要原因为_________。
[A] cold air        [A] 冷空气
[B] calm seas        [B] 平静的大海
[C] ice        [C] 冰
[D] lack of knowledge about the continent        [D] 对该大陆了解的缺乏
[分析] 本题考核的知识点是:因果细节题。
第二段②句指出,距北极某一距离的一些地区适宜居住,而来自大陆的强冷气流使得具南极同等距离的地区却无法居住(This cold air current …renders unlivable those regions whose counterparts at the opposite end of the globe are inhabited)。[A]选项正确。
20. According to this article ________.        20. 根据本文可知,______。
[A] 2,000 people live on the Antarctic Continent        [A] 有2000人住在南极大陆
[B] a million people live within 2,000 miles of the South Pole        [B] 有一百万人住在距南极两千英里的范围内
[C] weather conditions within a 2,000 mile radius of the South Pole make settlements impractical        [C] 以南极为中心,2000英里为半径的区域内的天气条件不适合居住
[D] only a handful of natives inhabit Antarctica        [D] 南极地区只有很少的本地人居住
[分析]本题考核知识点:细节综合题。
第二段②句指出,北极的一些地区适宜居住,而来自大陆的强冷气流使南极地区却无法居住。③④句指出,在距北极2000英里的区域内,居住着一百多万人口;而在距南极同样距离的范围内,则连一棵树、一家企业、一个定居点都没有。 [C]选项为对该部分内容的概述。
五、全文翻译
在世界底端存在着一片尚被冰川覆盖的、不久之前才为人所知的非凡的大陆。这是一片广阔的陆地,其山川的跨度和高度尚未确定。它的大部分地区在我们的地图上都还是空白。人类步行探索的范围尚不足其面积的百分之一。南极和北极地区存在着根本的差异。北极地区是一片被巨大的欧、亚、北美大陆所包围、被漂移的冰块所覆盖的大海。南极地区是一块面积几乎等于欧洲和澳洲之和、以南极为大致中心的大陆。其周围环绕着世界上最为广阔的水域——大西洋、太平洋及印度洋。
大陆冰盖的中心高达两英里多,因此,南极上空的空气比北极地区更冰冷。来自大陆的冷气流的强度足以让附近的海洋成为世界上暴风雪最为肆虐的地方,使南极区域成为无法居住的地区,而在地球另一端同样的位置却有人居住。因此,在距北极2000英里范围内包括大部分的阿拉斯加、西伯利亚、斯堪的纳维亚的这样一个林业和矿业丰富的地区,居住着一百多万人口。而在距南极同等距离的区域内,除了少数几家气象站外,连一棵树,一家产业、或一个定居点都没有。

Section III        English-Chinese Translation
Translate the following passage into Chinese. Only the underlined sentences are to be translated. (20 points)
It would be interesting to discover how many young people go to university without any clear idea of what they are going to do afterwards. (21) If one considers the enormous variety of courses offered, it is not hard to see how difficult it is for a student to select the course most suited to his interests and abilities. (22) If a student goes to university to acquire a broader perspective of life, to enlarge his ideas and to learn to think for himself, he will undoubtedly benefit. (23) Schools often have too restricting an atmosphere, with its time tables and disciplines, to allow him much time for independent assessment of the work he is asked to do. (24) Most students would, I believe, profit by a year of such exploration of different academic studies, especially those “all rounders” with no particular interest. They should have longer time to decide in what subject they want t**grees, so that in later life, they do not look back and say, “I should like to have been an archaeologist. If I hadn’t taken a degree in Modern Languages, I shouldn’t have ended up as an interpreter, but it’s too late now. I couldn’t go back and begin all over again.”
(25) There is, of course, another side to the question of how to make the best use of one’s time at university. (26) This is the case of the student who excels in a particular branch of learning. (27) He is immediately accepted by the University of his choice, and spends his three or four years becoming a specialist, emerging with a first-class Honour Degree and very little knowledge of what the rest of the world is all about. (28) It therefore becomes more and more important that, if students are not to waste their opportunities, there will have to be much more detailed information about courses and more advice. Only in this way can we be sure that we are not to have, on the one hand, a band of specialists ignorant of anything outside of their own subject, and on the other hand, an ever increasing number of graduates qualified in subjects for which there is little or no demand in the working world.

一、文章结构分析
本文强调了要为大学生提供更多课程方面的信息,从而使他们在对各门不同学科进行钻研之后,选择符合自己兴趣和能力的学科。

二、试题具体解析
21.        本题考核的知识点是:主从复合句、形式主语。
【句子结构】该句为主从复合句。句首为if引导的条件从句,主句为it is not hard to see …,可以采用顺译法,保留句子原来的顺序。主句中it为形式主语,不定式结构to see …为真正的主语。how difficult it is … abilities为see的宾语从句。从句的主干结构为how difficult it is for a student to …,其中it为形式主语,真正的主语是后面的不定式结构to select the course,过去分词短语most suited to his interests and abilities做后置定语,修饰先行词the course。翻译该从句时应将真正的主语内容译出。
【词义确定】variety (of sth)意为“不同种类,多种式样”;suited to sth意为“合适,适当”。
【翻译】如果想一想那些为学生设置的门类繁多的课程,我们就不难发现,对一个学生来说,要选一门符合他的兴趣和能力的课程是多么困难。
22. 本题考核的知识点是:主从复合句、不定式结构。
【句子结构】该句为主从复合句。句首为if引导的条件从句,主句为he will undoubtedly benefit。条件句的主干为If a student goes to university,三个并列的不定式结构做目的状语:to acquire … to enlarge … and to learn …。
【词义确定】acquire意为“获得,取得,学到”;perspective意为“看法,观点”。
【翻译】如果一个学生进大学是为了想获得一个对生活前景更广泛的认识,为了扩大思想境界和学会独立思考,那么毫无疑问,进大学对他是有好处的。
23.本题考核的知识点是:固定结构、不定式结构、状语。
【句子结构】该句的主干为Schools often have too restricting an atmosphere to …。注意,too … to … 结构除了用于“too + 形容词或副词+ to do sth”外,也可用于“too + 形容词+ a / an + 单数可数名词+ to do sth”。句末为较长的不定式结构to allow … 做结果状语。Atmosphere和不定式之间插入的介词短语with its time tables and disciplines做状语,根据语义,可以译为汉语的原因状语。
【词义确定】restricting意为“限制的”;atmosphere意为“气氛”;allow (sb sth)意为“给予……”;assessment意为“估价,评估”。
【翻译】学校由于受课程表和纪律的约束,气氛往往令人感到过于拘束,使学生没有充分时间对规定要他做的事情有独立的见解。
24. 本题考核的知识点是:插入语,方式状语,主语补语
【句子结构】该句的插入语部分I believe可放在句子最前面,从而看成“主谓句+宾语从句”的句型,译为:我认为……。宾语从句的主干是Most students would profit by …,介词短语by a year of …studies做方式状语,修饰profit,译为“通过/经过……”。句末especially those …是从句主语的补语,翻译时可提前跟在主语后。
【词义确定】exploration意为“探测,探索”,这里根据与academic studies的搭配,译为“钻研”。all rounder意为“多面手”,根据上下文译为“全面发展的学生”。
【翻译】我认为大多数学生,尤其是那些没有偏重某一门课程的“全面发展的学生”,经过一年左右的时间对各门不同学科的钻研,将会从中获益。
25. 本题考核的知识点是:there be句型、后置定语
【句子结构】该句的主干结构为there be句型,即There is another side,介词短语to the question …做后置定语,修饰名词side。其中question后跟有介词短语of how to make the best use of one’s time at university做后置定语,说明其具体内容。
【词义确定】side意为“方面”;介词to意为“属于,关于,对于”;make the best use of意为“充分地利用”。
【翻译】当然,关于一个人如何最充分地利用上大学的时间,还有另外一个方面。
26. 本题考核的知识点是:定语从句
【句子结构】该句的主干是This is the case of the student,who引导的定语从句修饰先行词student。
【词义确定】case意为“情形,情况”。excel in意为“在……方面出类拔萃”;branch of learning意为“知识的一门分科”。
【翻译】某一学科中出类拔萃的学生就属于这种情况。
27. 本题考核的知识点是:分词结构、名词转译为动词
【句子结构】 该句的主干为He is immediately accepted by … , and spends his three or four years becoming … , 其中谓语部分为and连接的两个动词短语,前一个是被动语态is accepted by,后一个是spend time doing sth的结构。分词结构emerging with a first-class Honour Degree and very little knowledge of …做结果状语,由于该部分较长,可单独译成一句。句末名词从句what the rest of the world is all about做介词of的宾语。
【词义确定】the University of his choice和little knowledge of what the rest of the world is all about中choice和knowledge都有动作含义,应译为“选择大学”和“了解外界”。emerge意为“露头,出现”。
【翻译】他一毕业马上就被一所他自己选中的大学所接受,再花三、四年时间成为一名专家。结果他以优异的成绩取得荣誉学位,但对外界的一切却几乎一无所知。
28. 本题考核的知识点是:主语从句、条件状语从句
【句子结构】该句的主干是It therefore becomes more and more important that …,其中it为形式主语,that从句是真正的主语。主语从句中嵌套了if条件句,主语从句的主干为there will have to be much more detailed information。由于主语从句较长,可以先单独译成一句话。
【翻译】因此,如果要学生好好利用他们上大学的机会,就应该为他们提供大量关于课程方面更为详尽的信息和更多的的建议。这个问题显得越来越重要了。

三、全文翻译
发现有多少上大学的年轻人对将来要做什么没有任何明确的想法,将是一件有趣的事情。(21)如果想一想那些为学生设置的门类繁多的课程,我们就不难发现,对一个学生来说,要选一门符合他的兴趣和能力的课程是多么困难。(22)如果一个学生进大学是为了想获得一个对生活前景更广泛的认识,为了扩大思想境界和学会独立思考,那么毫无疑问,进大学对他是有好处的。(23)学校由于受课程表和纪律的约束,气氛往往令人感到过于拘束,使学生没有充分时间对规定要他做的事情有独立的见解。(24)我认为大多数学生,尤其是那些没有偏重某一门课程的“全面发展的学生”,经过一年左右的时间对各门不同学科的钻研,将会从中获益。他们应该有更长的时间来决定想拿什么学科的学位,以便在以后的岁月里回顾过去时不会说,“我希望自己是一名考古学家。如果我没有获得现代语言的学位,就不会成为一名翻译,但现在为时已晚。我不能回头再重新来过了。
    (25)当然,关于一个人如何最充分地利用上大学的时间,还有另外一个方面。(26)某一学科中出类拔萃的学生就属于这种情况。(27)他一毕业马上就被一所他自己选中的大学所接受,再花三、四年时间成为一名专家。结果他以优异的成绩取得荣誉学位,但对外界的一切却几乎一无所知。(28)因此,如果要学生好好利用他们上大学的机会,就应该为他们提供大量关于课程方面更为详尽的信息和更多的的建议。这个问题显得越来越重要了。只有这样,我们才能确保:一方面,我们不会有一帮对自己学科以外的事情完全无知的专家,另一方面,我们不会有越来越多的毕业生具备这个工作世界很少或没有需求的学科的知识。


1987年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题

Section I Close Test
For each numbered blank in the following passage there are four choices labeled [A], [B], [C] and [D]. Choose the best one and put your choice in the ANSWER SHEET. Read the whole passage before making your choice. (10 points)

①Cheques have   1   replaced money as a means of exchange for they are widely accepted everywhere. ②Though this is very convenient for both buyer and seller, it should not be forgotten that cheques are not real money: they are quite valueless in themselves. ③A shop-keeper always runs a certain   2   when he accepts a cheque and he is quite   3   his rights if on occasion, he refuses to do so.
④People do not always know this and are shocked if their good faith is called   4  . ⑤An old and very wealthy friend of mine told me he had an extremely unpleasant experience. ⑥He went to a famous jewelry shop which keeps a large   5   of precious stones and asked to be shown some pearl necklaces. ⑦After examining several trays, he decided to buy a particularly fine string of pearls and asked if he could pay by Cheques. ⑧The assistant said that this was quite   6   but the moment my friend signed his name, he was invited into the manager’s office.
⑨The manager was very polite, but he explained that someone with exactly the same name had presented them with a worthless Cheque not long ago. ⑩My friend got very angry when he heard this and said he would buy a necklace somewhere else. ○11When he got up to go, the manager told him that the police would arrive at any moment and he had better stay   7   he wanted to get into serious trouble. ○12  8  , the police arrived soon afterwards. ○13They apologized to my friend for the   9  , but explained that a person who had used the same name as his was responsible for a number of recent robberies. ○14Then the police asked my friend to copy out a note which had been used by the thief in a number of shops. ○15The note   10  : “I have a gun in my pocket. Ask no questions and give me all the money in the safe.” ○16Fortunately, my friend’s handwriting was quite unlike the thief’s. ○17He was not only allowed to go without further delay, but to take the string of pearls with him. [356 words]

1. [A] exactly                        [B] really                        [C] largely                        [D] thoroughly
2. [A] danger                        [B] chance                        [C] risk                        [D] opportunity
3. [A] within                        [B] beyond                [C] without                [D] out of
4. [A] in difficulty                [B] in doubt                [C] in earnest                [D] in question
5. [A] amount                        [B] stock                        [C] number                [D] store
6. [A] in order                        [B] in need                [C] in use                        [D] in common
7. [A] whether                        [B] if                                [C] otherwise                [D] unless
8. [A] Really                        [B] Sure enough        [C] Certainly                [D] However
9. [A] treatment                [B] manner                [C] inconvenience        [D] behaviour
10.[A] read                        [B] told                        [C] wrote                        [D] informed


一、文章结构分析
本文记述了一位老者一次用支票支付的经历。
第一段总说,介绍支票的广泛使用及使用中存在的问题:本身并无价值,因此店员有时会拒绝接受支票。
第二至三段具体讲述了一次支票支付的经历。第二段介绍人物、事情发生的地点及起因。第三段记叙了事情的发展及结尾。

二、试题具体分析
1.[A] exactly确切地,精确地          [B] really事实上;确实,的确
[C] largely在很大程度上,主要地    [D] thoroughly非常,完全;仔细,缜密
本题考核的知识点是:常识+副词辨析。
[快速解题]空格所在的句子是全文首句,基本结构完整,句意清楚。因此,考生关键要判断哪个副词代入文中符合逻辑语义。根据常识,“支票已经确切地、事实上或完全取代了现金”均不符合事实逻辑,只有largely代入文中强调“支票在很大程度上取代现金”符合逻辑,因此[C]为正确选项。
[篇章分析]第一段介绍故事发生的背景。①②句是全文引子。①句指出支票已成为普及的付款手段的事实,②③句转折指出支票付款存在的问题及带来的结果:有时店员可能不接受支票付款。
[空格设置]本题考查句中做状语的程度副词largely,例句:He resigned largely because of the stories in the press.他的辞职多半是因为新闻界的一些报道。
[干扰项设置]其他项都是常用副词,且thoroughly也是程度副词。例句:I know exactly how she felt.我完全清楚她的感受。Tell me what really happened.告诉我究竟发生了什么事。Now I really must go.我确实得走了。I’m thoroughly confused.我完全给搞糊涂了。The work had not been done very thoroughly.这工作做得不太认真。
2. [A] danger危险,危害                        [B] chance可能性;机会,时机;风险
[C] risk危险,风险                                [D] opportunity时机,机会
本题考核的知识点是:固定搭配。
[快速解题]上文说支票并非真正的钱(not real money),本身是没有价值的(valueless)。本句紧接着指出当店员接受支票时,他总是在……。根据逻辑,既然支票无价值,那么接受支票付款应当“存在风险性”,上下两句间暗含着因果的逻辑关系。空格处填入的名词做runs的宾语,runs a certain   2   即应表示店员“冒险”的含义。选项中,只有risk可以与run搭配,run the risk (of doing sth)/run risks表示“冒……的危险,冒险(做某事)”,符合文意。其他项或不符合文中搭配,或不符合文意,应排除。
[篇章分析]③句是过渡句,由上文泛泛而谈支票支付的问题具体到在商店购物时使用支票的情况,并引出下文两段关于此的一次具体经历的讲述。
[空格设置]本题考查了risk的固定动宾搭配。例句:Investment is all about running risks.投资就是要冒风险。We don’t want to run the risk of losing their business.我们不想冒险失去他们的生意。其他包含risk的表示“冒险”的搭配还有at the risk of doing sth冒着……的风险,at risk to sb/sth冒伤及……的危险,take a risk/take risks(to do sth)冒险(做某事)。
[干扰项设置]其他项都是常用名词。其中,danger构成对risk的近义干扰,chance与opportunity近义,构成对risk的反义干扰。danger常做不可数名词,如:in/out of danger处于危险中/脱离危险,当表示“危险,坏事发生的可能性”时可用作可数或不可数,后面必须接of sth或that同位语从句进行修饰,如:There is a danger that the political disorder of the past will return.昔日的政治动乱现在有可能重演。chance常表示希望发生的事的可能性,如:There is no chance that he will change his mind.他不可能改变主意。它还与opportunity近义,表示“时机”,如:You’ll have the chance/opportunity to ask any questions at the end.你们最后将有机会提问任何问题。注意chance也可指“风险,冒险”,常与take搭配,如:When installing electrical equipment don’t take any chances. A mistake could kill.安装电器设备时千万不要冒险,弄错了有可能出人命。
3. [A] within在(某段时间、距离、范围或限度)之内
[B] beyond在(或向)……较远的一边;晚于;超出,多于,非所能及
[C] without没有,缺乏;不和……在一起;不用,不拿,不带;不(做某事)
[D] out of 出来,出去;远离;脱离,除去;从,用……制作;没有,缺少;由于
本题考核的知识点是:上下文语义+介词用法。
[快速解题]③句是由and连接的并列句,and表明分句间是承接关系,即分句内容一致:前一分句说明支票支付存在风险,后一分句即应说明拒绝支票的合理性;其次,根据下文内容,珠宝店的店员确实拒绝了主人公的支票并将事情通报经理,可见他的做法也是合理的。因此只有[A]within符合文意,它在文中指“(拒绝支票)在他(店员)的权力范围内”。
[篇章分析]③句是由and连接的并列句,本题空格所在的后一分句的主语he即指第一个分句的主语a shop keeper,两个分句中分别含有由when和if引导的状语从句,从句中accepts与refuses反义复现。
[空格设置]本题通过考查介词实则考查了对上下文语义的理解。文中用到within“在……范围内”的抽象含义,例句:The question is not within the scope of this talk.那个问题不在本次会谈范围之内。
[干扰项设置]其他项都是常用的介词(词组),其中beyond与out of构成对within的反义干扰,without构成对within的形近干扰。例句:The road continues beyond the village up into the hills.那条路经过村子后又往上延伸到群山中。It won’t go on beyond midnight.这事不会延续到午夜以后。She got nothing beyond her state pension.除了政府发的养老金外,她什么都没有。The bicycle was beyond repair.自行车已坏得无法修理。They had gone two days without food.他们已经两天没吃东西了。Don’t go without me.别甩下我就走。He left without saying goodbye.他不辞而别。The ship sank ten miles out of Stockholm.那条船沉没在距斯德哥尔摩十英里外海。Try and stay out of trouble.尽量别惹麻烦。He drank his beer out of the bottle.他从瓶口直接喝啤酒。We’re out of milk.我们没有牛奶了。I asked out of curiosity.我因为好奇问了问。
4. [A] in difficulty在困难、困境中                        [B] in doubt不肯定,不确定
[C] in earnest严肃地,认真地,郑重其事        [D] in question有疑问,不确定
本题考核的知识点是:固定搭配。
[快速解题]④句承接上文,说明人们并不总是知道这一点(店员有权在某些情况下拒收支票)而且如果他们的好信誉……他们会感到震惊。我们知道,支票是一种以信誉度为基础的支付手段,因此如果某人的信誉度有问题则他的支票就无法兑现(上文③句a certain risk即指着这样的风险),而这样的支票肯定不会被商店接受。空格处填入一个介词短语,is called   4  表明的是信誉度有问题(因而支票被拒)的情况。call sth in/into question是固定短语,意为“怀疑,引起怀疑”,它代入文中,指“好信誉受到质疑”,符合文意,因此选[D]。   
[篇章分析]④句是二段首句,承接上文③句,一起过渡到下文对一次具体支付经历的讲述。⑤句总起下文有关的讲述。④句的谓语部分是由and连接的一个动宾(do not always know this)和一个系表结构(are shocked震惊,惊愕),第一部分谓语中的宾语this指代上文③句内容,实现与上文的衔接。if…与⑤句中an extremely unpleasant experience呼应,引起下文的描述。
[空格设置]本题考查了基本动词call的一个习语。例句:His honest has never been called into question.他的诚实从未受到过怀疑。注意in question也是一个固定短语,它可指“讨论或议论中的;有疑问,不确定”,如:On the day in question we were in Beijing.在所说的那一天,我们在北京。The future of public transport is not in question.公共交通的未来发展是不容置疑的。
[干扰项设置]其他项都是常用的介词短语,其中in doubt构成对in question的近义干扰,但它并不与call搭配。例句:The bank is in difficulty.这家银行处境困难。The success of the system is not in doubt.这种制度成功确定无疑。The work on the house will begin in earnest on Monday.这栋房子的修建工作将在星期一正式开始。You may laugh but I’m in deadly earnest.你可以笑,不过我可是正经八百的。
5. [A] amount金额;数量,数额
[B] stock现货,存货;贮备物,供应物;股本,股份
[C] number数字;数量,数额\
[D] store商店;贮存物;(stores)(某类)商品,物品;仓库
本题考核的知识点是:名词辨析。
[快速解题]空格所在部分是which引导的定语从句,修饰jewelry shop,说明的是珠宝店的存货。选项中stock可具体表示“(商店的)现货,存货”,而其他三项用于a large…of sth的结构中都指“大量的”,a store of还可指“一商店的……”,因此,只有stock准确地表达了文意,为最佳答案。
[空格设置]本题考查了stock的特殊含义,以及考生根据语境选择最恰当词汇的能力。We don’t carry a large stock of pine furniture.松木家具我们备货不多。a country’s housing stock一个国家的住房保有量;build up a good stock of teaching materials积累大量教学资料。
[干扰项设置]其他项都可用于文中a~ of的结构,且能使句意通顺。其中,store又构成对stock的近义干扰,如:her secret store of chocolate她私下存放的巧克力;a vast store of knowledge丰富的知识;medical/military stores医疗用品/军需品。an amount of后常接不可数名词,如:an amount of time/money/information一段时间/一笔钱/一些信息。a number of后接名词复数,如:a number of problems have arisen.已经出现了一些问题。
6. [A] in order妥当,适宜                                [B] in need需要(~of);缺乏
[C] in use使用中的                                 [D] in common共有,公用
本题考核的知识点是:上下文语义+介词短语。
[快速解题]空格所在的部分是that引导的宾语从句,说明的是店员说话的内容。空格处填入的介词短语在宾语从句中做表语,表明:店员表示这样(用支票支付)是……。根据上下文意,店员开始时是接受支票支付的,即认为这样做是“妥当的”,只有in order符合文意。其他项代入文中都无法与上下文语义衔接,应排除。
[空格设置]此处考查介词短语in order,一是因为它需要根据上下文语义作出判断,同时它本身含义较多,也是应掌握的知识点。它可意为“有条理”,如:It was time she put her life in order.她到了该好好安排自己生活的时候了。“有秩序,有规矩”,如:to keep the class in order保持课堂秩序;“(正式文件)(依法)有效”,如:Is your work permit in order?你的工作许可证有效吗?“就绪”,如:Is everything in order, sir?一切准备就绪了吗,先生?及文中考查的生僻含义“妥当,适宜”,如:I think a drink would be in order.我想应该喝杯饮料了吧。
[干扰项设置]其他项都是由“in+名词”构成的介词短语。例句:The house is in need of a thorough clean.这房子需要来个大扫除。to provide assistance to people in need向贫困者提供帮助。The chapel was built in the 12th century and is still in use today.这座小教堂建于12世纪,今天仍在使用。They hold the property as tenants in common.作为共同租赁人,他们共同占有这份房地产。
7. [A] whether是否,表选择                                [B] if如果,表条件;是否,表选择
[C] otherwise否则,不然,表转折                [D]unless除非,如果不,表条件
本题考核的知识点是:句内逻辑关系。
[快速解题]空格所在句子说明:当我的朋友起身要离开时,经理告诉他说警察就要来了,他最好待在这里。that the police would arrive和(that) he had better stay是told的并列的宾语从句,而空格处填入一个连词,连接的是第二个宾语从句内部的两个分句,即he had better stay和he wanted to get into serious trouble。根据文意,只有unless代入文中符合逻辑,即“警察就要来了,如果他不想惹大麻烦就最好待在这。”因此选[D]。
[空格设置]○11句较长,unless体现的是句子第二层的逻辑关系,需要层层理顺句子结构做出正确判断。
[干扰项设置]其他项都是常用的表示逻辑关系的连词(whether,if))或副词(otherwise)。otherwise例句:We are committed to the project. Otherwise we wouldn’t be here.我们是来全心全意投入这项工作的,否则我们就不会到这里来了。
8. [A] Really事实上,真正地;确实,的确,表强调
[B] Sure enough果真,果然
[C] Certainly无疑,确定,肯定
[D] However但是,表转折
本题考核的知识点是:句间逻辑关系+副词辨析。
[快速解题]空格在句首,以逗号与句子其他部分隔开,做整个句子的状语。上文说到警察很快就会来,本句则说警察不久就来了,句间是顺承关系,首先排除表示转折的however。其他三项都含有“真的,确定”的含义,但really表示指出事实或强调观点等,且不能修饰整个句子,在含义和语法上都不符合,应排除;certainly可修饰句子,但强调某事确定会发生,而文中“警察到了”是已经发生的事,它代入文中时间上相矛盾,应排除。只有sure enough表示不出所料,“果然……”,代入文中文意通畅,即经理说警察很快就来,而“果然警察不久就到了”,因此选[B]。
[空格设置]此处sure enough表明了句间的逻辑关系,且它本身也不为考生所熟悉,是需要掌握一个难点。例句:I said he’d forget, and sure enough he did.我说他会忘记,他果然就忘了。
类似的“副词+enough”构成的副词短语还有curiously/oddly/strangely enough奇怪的是,right enough当然,不可否认。
[干扰项设置]干扰项中however也是常用逻辑词,而really与certainly构成sure enough的近义干扰。例句:Tell me what really happened.告诉我究竟发生了什么事。He really likes you.他的确喜欢你。Certainly, the early learning years are crucial to a child’s educational development.毫无疑问,开头几年的启蒙教育对儿童的发展至关重要。
9. [A] treatment对待,待遇                  [B] manner举止,态度;(manners)礼貌,习俗
[C] inconvenience不便,麻烦  [D] behaviour行为,举止,态度
本题考核的知识点是:上下文语义。
[快速解题]空格处填入的名词做for的介词宾语,apologize to sb for sth意为“因某事向某人道歉”,文中是指“他们(警察)因……向我的朋友道歉”。根据文意,警察暂时阻留了我的朋友,因该是给我的朋友造成了“不便”,而他们具体有何“态度、行为”或我的朋友受到何种“对待”均无法从文中得知,因此排除其他三项,选[C]。
[空格设置]此处通过考查名词实则考察了考生对上下文意的理解,及根据语境选择恰当的词的能力。例句:We apologize for the delay and regret any inconvenience it may have caused.我们对此次延误以及因此造成的所有可能不便表示道歉。
[干扰项设置]其他项都是表示待人的行为或态度的名词。例句:the brutal treatment of political prisoners对狱中政治犯的残酷虐待。to have an aggressive/a friendly manner有这一副咄咄逼人的/友好的态度;to have good/bad manners有/没有礼貌。a social/criminal behaviour社会/犯罪行为。
10. [A] read阅读,朗读;写着,写成是;读数为       
[B] told告诉;提供(情况);讲述
[C] wrote书写;写作;开(支票),填(表格等)
[D] informed通知;了解,熟悉
本题考核的知识点是:动词辨析。
[快速解题]空格处填入的动词做句子谓语动词,其主语为note(便条),宾语是引用的部分,说明便条的内容,该动词说明的即应是“便条上写着……”。能表达“在……上写着”并直接接所写内容的只有read(注意这里read是过去式),其他项虽然都有“写、告知”的含义,但均不符合文中用法,应排除。因此选[A]。  
[空格设置]本题考查了基础动词read的特殊用法。例句:The sign read “No admittance”.告示牌上写着“禁止入内”。
[干扰项设置]其他项都是相关的表示写、说、告知信息的基础动词。例句:The advertisement told us very little about the product.这则广告提供的产品情况极少。Please inform us of any changes of address.地址若有变动请随时通知我们。to inform ourselves thoroughly of the problem对这个问题有透彻的了解。

三、全文翻译
由于支票到处被广泛接受,它已在很大程度上代替钱币成为一种交换手段。虽然这给买卖双方都带来了便利,但我们不应忘记支票并非真钱:它们本身毫无价值。一位店员在接受支票(支付)时总是冒着一定的风险;而如果在某种情况下,他拒绝接受支票,那也完全是在他的权力范围之内。
人们并不总是了解这一点,而且当他们的好信誉受到怀疑时他们惊愕万分。我的一位年事已高、非常富有的朋友曾给我讲述过他的一次极不愉快的经历。他去了一家著名的有大量珍奇珠宝存货的珠宝店,要求看一些珍珠项链。在看了几个托盘的项链后,他决定买一串特别精美的珍珠并且询问是否可以用支票支付。店员说这完全合适,但我的朋友刚把名签好他就被请到了经理办公室。
经理很客气,但他解释说不久前有人用了完全相同的名字,却给了他们一张空头支票。听到这些后,我的朋友非常生气,说他将去别处买项链。当他起身要走时,经理告诉他说警察马上会来,如果他不想惹上大麻烦的话,就最好待在这。果然,警察不久就来了。他们为引起的不便向我的朋友道歉,但解释说有一个用了和他相同名字的人制造了最近几起抢劫案。然后警察要求我的朋友抄写一份便条,那是盗贼在几家商店使用过的。便条上写着:“我口袋里有枪。别问任何问题,把保险柜里的钱全部给我。”幸运的是,我朋友的笔迹与盗贼的完全不同。他不仅被马上准许离开,并且还带走了那串项链。

Section II        Reading Comprehension

Each of the two passages below is followed by five questions. For each question there are four answers. Read the passages carefully and choose the best answer to each of the questions. Put your choice in the brackets on the left. (10 points)

Text 1
①For centuries men dreamed of achieving vertical flight. ②In 400 A.D. Chinese children played with a fan-like toy that spun upwards and fell back to earth as rotation ceased. ③Leonardo da Vinci conceive the first mechanical apparatus, called a “Helix,” which could carry man straight up, but was only a design and was never tested.
①The ancient-dream was finally realized in 1940 when a Russian engineer piloted a strange looking craft of steel tubing with a rotating fan on top. ②It rose awkwardly and vertically into the air from a standing start, hovered a few feet above the ground, went sideways and backwards, and then settled back to earth. ③The vehicle was called a helicopter.
①Imaginations were fired. ②Men dreamed of going to work in their own personal helicopters. ③People anticipate that vertical flight transports would carry millions of passengers as do the airliners of today. ④Such fantastic expectations were not fulfilled.
①The helicopter has now become an extremely useful machine. ②It excels in military missions, carrying troops, guns and strategic instruments where other aircraft cannot go. ③Corporations use them as airborne offices, many metropolitan areas use them in police work, construction and logging companies employ them in various advantageous ways, engineers use them for site selection and surveying, and oil companies use them as the best way to make offshore and remote work stations accessible to crews and supplies. ④Any urgent mission to a hard-to-get-to place is a likely task for a helicopter. ⑤Among their other multitude of uses: deliver people across town, fly to and from airports, assist in rescue work, and aid in the search for missing or wanted persons.

一、词汇
1.vertical a. 垂直的                                                2.spin n./v. 旋转
3.rotation n. 旋转                                                        4.conceive v. 构思
5.apparatus n.装置,器具                                        6.pilot v. 试点,试行(产品、理念等)
7.tubing n. 装管,配管                                                8.multitude of 大量
9.deliver v. 递送

二、长难句
1. Leonardo da Vinci conceive the first mechanical apparatus, called a “Helix,” which could carry man straight up, but was only a design and was never tested.
该句主干为Leonardo da Vinci conceive the first mechanical apparatus,过去分词短语called …和which引导的定语从句都做后置定语,修饰先行词apparatus。从句的谓语是but连接的两个并列动词短语could carry …和was only a design …。
翻译:李奥纳多•达芬奇构想出首个名为“螺旋”(Helix)的机械装置,它可以带人垂直上升,但这只是一种设计而从未进行测试。

2. It excels in military missions, carrying troops, guns and strategic instruments where other aircraft cannot go.
该句主干为It excels in military missions,现在分词结构carrying …做状语,where引导地点状语从句。
翻译:它在执行军事任务上表现极为出色,因为它可以运送军队、武器及战略设备到其他飞行器所无法到达的地方。

三、文章结构分析
这篇文章主要介绍直升机的产生、发展、结构及用途。
第一段叙述直升机产生的动机:人类的垂直飞行梦想,并以古时中国儿童的玩具以及达芬奇的构想为例说明这一梦想由来已久。
第二段介绍直升机的产生及结构:俄国工程师于1940年制造出直升机;它为钢制,上方装有旋转扇,可以垂直上升,在空中盘旋并落回地面。
第三段指出直升机的未来发展:人们期望直升机能够广泛使用,运载大量乘客。但这一梦想还未实现。
第四段叙述直升机的广泛用途:可以用于军事、商业、科技、民用;可以承担任何难以到达地方的紧急任务。

四、试题具体分析

11.        People expect that ________.        11. 人们期望________。
[A] the airliners of today would eventually be replaced by helicopters        [A] 如今的班机最终会被直升机所取代。
[B] helicopters would someday be able to transport large number of people from place to place as airliners are now doing        [B] 未来的直升机可以像如今的班机一样将大量人群从一个地方运送到另一个地方。
[C] the imaginations fired by the Russian engineer’s invention would become a reality in the future        [C] 由俄国工程师所激发的想象力可以在未来成为现实。
[D] their fantastic expectations about helicopters could be fulfilled by airliners of today        [D] 他们对于直升机的幻想可以由如今的班机得以实现。
【分析】本题所考查的知识点是:具体细节题。
由题干关键词people expect定位到文章第三段②句(“people anticipate”)。该句指出,人们期望垂直飞行交通手段(即直升机)能像如今的班机一样可以承载成千上万的乘客。[B]选项是对此句的同义改写,为正确项。
[A]选项过度引申,文中提到人们希望直升机可以达到班机的运载量,但并没有说明班机会被直升机所取代。[C]选项利用文中出现词语Russian engineer和imagination捏造无关干扰。[D]选项张冠李戴,第三段最后一句明确指出人们对于直升机的期望并未实现。
12.        Helicopters work with the aid of ________.        12. 直升机工作时需要________的协助。
[A] a combination of rotating devices in front and on top        [A] 前方和上方的旋转设备联合工作
[B] a rotating device topside        [B] 上方的旋转设备
[C] one rotating fan in the center of the aircraft and others at each end        [C] 飞行器中央和两端的螺旋桨
[D] a rotating fan underneath for lifting        [D] 下方帮助抬升的螺旋桨
【分析】本题所考查的知识点是:具体细节题。
本题考查直升机的结构,具体来说,是直升机螺旋桨的位置。第二段①句指出,首架直升机是一种外形奇特的钢铁制飞行器,上面装有一个螺旋桨,即螺旋桨位于直升机的顶部。[B]选项正确。
13.        What is said about the development of the helicopter?        13. 关于直升机的发展,以下哪一项是正确的?
[A] Helicopters have only been worked on by man since 1940.        [A] 人们自1940年以来才开始制造直升机。
[B] Chinese children were the first to achieve flight in helicopters.        [B] 中国儿童是最初实现直升机飞行的。
[C] Helicopters were considered more dangerous than the early airplanes.        [C] 直升机被认为比早期飞机更危险。
[D] Some people thought they would become widely used by average individuals.        [D] 一些人认为它们可以为普通人广泛使用。
【分析】本题所考查的知识点是:综合细节题。
文章第三段指出,人们梦想乘坐直升机上下班,期望它能够像如今的班机一样能够运载大量乘客。[D]选项是对这一想法的概括,为正确项。
文章第一段首句指出,垂直飞行一直是人们的梦想,随后以古时中国儿童的玩具说明这一梦想由来已久,并以达芬奇的构想设计说明人们在实现这一梦想方面早已做出尝试,排除[A]选项。[B]选项张冠李戴,第二段明确指出直升机于1940年由俄国工程师发明。[C]选项利用文中出现词语helicopter和airplane捏造的无关比较。
14.        How has the use of helicopters developed?        14. 直升机的用途如何发展?
[A] They have been widely used for various purposes.        [A] 它们被广泛用于各种目的。
[B] They are taking the place of high-flying jets.        [B] 它们取代高空飞行喷气式飞机。
[C] They are used for rescue work.        [C] 它们被用于救援工作。
[D] They are now used exclusively for commercial projects.        [D] 它们如今被专用于商业项目。
【分析】本题所考查的知识点是:具体细节题。
由题干中的关键词use of helicopter定位到文章第四段。第四段详细描述了直升机的各种用途,包括军事、商业、科技、民用等等。[A]选项的widely used和various purposes概括了第四段的内容,为正确项。
[B]选项无中生有。[C]和[D]选项以偏概全,救援与商业项目仅仅是直升机多种用途的两个方面而已,并不能概括直升机的所有用途。
15.        Under what conditions are helicopters found to be absolutely essential?        15. 在以下哪种情况下,直升机是必须的?
[A] For overseas passenger transportation.        [A] 跨洋旅客运送
[B] For extremely high altitude flights.        [B] 极高纬度飞行
[C] For high-speed transportation.        [C] 高速度交通
[D] For urgent mission to places inaccessible to other kinds of craft.        [D] 其他飞行器无法到达地方的紧急任务
【分析】本题所考查的知识点是:具体细节题。
第四段②句指出,直升机可以到达其他飞行器所无法到达的地方。④句明确指出,任何难以到达地方的紧急任务都可能成为直升机的工作。[D]选项是这两句话的综合表述,为正确项。
[A]、[B]和[C]选项皆是利用文中出现词语passenger、flight和transportation捏造的无关干扰,从文中无从推知。

五、全文翻译
长久以来,垂直飞行一直是人们的梦想。公元400年,中国儿童所玩的一种扇形玩具可以旋转上升,一旦旋转停止,它便落回地面。李奥纳多•达芬奇构想出首个名为“螺旋”(Helix)的机械装置,它可以带人垂直上升,但这只是一种设计而从未进行测试。
这一由来已久的梦想终于在1940年得以实现。俄国工程师试制了一种外形奇特的钢铁飞行器,它上面装有一个螺旋桨。它可以从初始位置笨拙地垂直上升,在离地几英尺的地方盘旋,左右和前后移动,然后落回地面。这种工具被称为直升机。
想象力就此激发。人们梦想乘坐自己的私人直升机上下班。他们期望垂直飞行交通手段能像如今的班机那样,承载几百万的乘客。但是,这样的幻想却还未实现。
直升机如今已经成为极为有用的机器。它在执行军事任务上表现极为出色,因为它可以运送军队、武器及战略设备到其他飞行器所无法到达的地方。公司将直升机用作空中办公室;很多大都市区在警察工作中使用直升机;建筑与测井公司以各种先进的方法使用直升机;工程师使用直升机来选择并调查工作地;石油公司使用直升机来为离岸和偏远工作站运送人员与供应。任何难以到达地方的紧急任务都可能成为直升机的工作。它们的其他大量用途中还包括:跨地运送人员、机场来回运送、救援工作协助以及协助搜索失踪人口或通缉犯。


Text 2
①In ancient Greece athletic festivals were very important and had strong religious associations. ②The Olympian athletic festival held every four years in honor of Zeus, king of the Olympian Gods, eventually lost its local character, became first a national event and then, after the rules against foreign competitors had been abolished, international. ③No one knows exactly how far back the Olympic Games go, but some official records date from 776 B.C.
①The games took place in August on the plain by Mount Olympus. ②Many thousands of spectators gathered from all parts of Greece, but no married woman was admitted even as a spectator. ③Slaves, women and dishonored persons were not allowed to compete. ④The exact sequence of events uncertain, but events included boy’s gymnastics, boxing, wrestling, horse racing and field events, though there were fewer sports involved than in the modern Olympic Games.
①On the last day of the Games, all the winners were honored by having a ring of holy olive leaves placed on their heads. ②So great was the honor that the winner of the foot race gave his name to the year of his victory. ③Although Olympic winners received no prize money, they were, in fact, richly rewarded by their state authorities. ④How their results compared with modern standards, we unfortunately have no means of telling.
①After an uninterrupted history of almost 1,200 years, the Games were suspended by the Romans in 394 A.D. ②They continued for such a long time because people believed in the philosophy behind the Olympics: the idea that a healthy body produced a healthy mind, and that the spirit of competition in sports and games was preferable to the competition that caused wars. ③It was over 1,500 years before another such international athletic gathering took place in Athens in 1896.
①Nowadays, the Games are held in different countries in turn. ②The host country provides vast facilities, including a stadium, swimming pools and living accommodation, but competing courtries pay their own athletes’ expenses.
①The Olympics start with the arrival in the stadium of a torch, lighted on Mount Olympus by the sun’s rays. ②It is carried by a succession of runners to the stadium. ③The torch symbolized the continuation of the ancient Greek athletic ideals, and it burns throughout the Games until the closing ceremony. ④The well-known Olympic flag, however, is a modern conception: the five interlocking rings symbolize the uniting of all five continents participating in the Games.

一、词汇
1.bolish vt. 彻底废除,废止                                                2 spectator n. 观众
3.involve vt. 使卷入,使参与                                        4.holy a.神圣的,圣洁的
5.suspend vt.暂停,中止                                                6.accommodation n. 住处,膳宿
7.succession n.一连串,一系列
二、长难句
1.The Olympian athletic festival held every four years in honor of Zeus, king of the Olympian Gods, eventually lost its local character, became first a national event and then, after the rules against foreign competitors had been abolished, international.
该句主语为The Olympian athletic festival,谓语为一系列的动词held …,lost …, became first a national event and then international (event)。
翻译:奥林匹克运动节每四年举办一次,最后失去了区域性特征,先是演变为全国性的运动会,当反对外国运动员参赛的规定被废除后,又继而成为了国际性的运动会。
2. The exact sequence of events uncertain, but events included boy’s gymnastics, boxing, wrestling, horse racing and field events, though there were fewer sports involved than in the modern Olympic Games.
该句主干为The exact sequence of events (were) uncertain, but events included boy’s gymnastics, boxing, wrestling, horse racing and field events,though引导让步状语从句。
翻译:项目的顺序不确定,但包括男子体操、拳击、摔跤、赛马以及一些田径项目,尽管这相对于现代运动会来说项目很少。
3. They continued for such a long time because people believed in the philosophy behind the Olympics: the idea that a healthy body produced a healthy mind, and that the spirit of competition in sports and games was preferable to the competition that caused wars.  
该句为主从复合句:主句部分为They continued,because引导原因状语从句。从句的主干为people believed in the philosophy,冒号后面部分为philosophy的同位语,对其予以解释说明。该同位语的中心名词是the idea,后面接有两个并列的that引导的定语从句。
翻译:奥运会之所以能够在如此长的一段时间内连续举办是因为人们相信奥林匹克蕴含的精神:健康的体魄产生健康的思想,体育运动中的竞争精神优于导致战争的竞争。

三、文章结构分析
本文是一篇介绍奥运会的的发展史的说明文。
第一到四段:介绍古代奥运会。第一段介绍古代奥运会的起源及发展过程。第二段指出古代奥运会对参赛资格的限定以及其包含的赛事。第三段介绍获胜者得到的荣誉和奖赏。第四段指出古代奥运会能够连续举办很长时间的原因并提及随后出现的中断。
第五、六段:介绍现代奥运会。第五段简介现代奥运会的轮办制。第六段简介奥运火炬的采集、传递以及奥运会会旗所代表的意义。

四、试题具体分析
16.        In ancient Greece, the Olympic Games ________.        16. 在古希腊,奥运会______。
[A] were merely national athletic festivals        [A] 只是全国性的运动节日
[B] were in the nature of a national event with a strong religious colour        [B] 是带有强烈的宗教色彩的全国性活动
[C] had rules which put foreign participants in a disadvantageous position        [C] 曾经有使外国参赛者处于劣势地位的规定
[D] were primarily national events with few foreign participants        [D] 基本上是没有外国参赛者的国内活动
[分析] 本题考查的知识点是:事实细节题。
第一段②句说明古代奥运会演变的历史:由地区性的到全国性的再到世界性的。该句指出,当对外国参赛者不利的规定取消后,奥运会成为国际性的活动。其言外之意是,古希腊的奥运会规定曾对外国参赛者不利,[C]选项正确。
[A]和[B]限于national,因此错误。文章并未提及奥运会中外国参赛者的数量的多少,因此[D]选项没有依据。
17.        In the early days of ancient Olympic Games ________.        17. 在古希腊奥运会的早期_______。
[A] only male Greek athletes were allowed to participate in the games        [A] 只有男性希腊运动员才被允许参赛比赛
[B] all Greeks, irrespective of sex, religion or social status, were allowed to take part        [B] 所有性别、宗教信仰、社会地位的希腊人都被允许参赛
[C] all Greeks, with the exception of women, were allowed to compete in Games        [C] 所有希腊人(妇女除外)都被允许参赛
[D] all male Greeks were qualified to compete in the Games        [D] 所有的希腊男性都有资格参赛
[分析]本题考查的知识点是:事实细节题。
第二段③句指出,奴隶、妇女和声誉不好的人不允许参赛。[A]选项符合文义。
[B]选项的irrespective of sex, social status反向干扰。[C]、[D]选项没有将奴隶和声誉不好的人排除,不合文义。
18.        The order of athletic events at the ancient Olympics ________.        18. 古代奥运会中,比赛项目的顺序_____。
[A] has not definitely been established        [A] 没有确定。
[B] varied according to the number of foreign competitors        [B] 根据外国参赛者数目的不同而不同
[C] was decided by Zeus, in whose honor the Games were held        [C] 由举办奥运会旨在纪念的宙斯确定。

[D] was considered unimportant        [D] 被认为是不重要的事情
[分析]本题考查知识点:事实细节题。
第二段④句指出,奥运会比赛项目的顺序不完全确定,[A]选项为该内容的同义改写,为正确选项。[B]、[C]和[D]文中均未提及, 因此排除。
19.        Modern athletes’ results cannot be compared with those of ancient runners because _____.        19. 无法将现代运动员的成绩与古代的参赛者相比是因为___.
[A] the Greeks had no means of recording the results        [A] 希腊当时没有记录成绩的方法
[B] they are much better        [B] 他们的成绩好得多
[C] details such as the time were not recorded in the past        [C] 过去没有记录时间等细节
[D] they are much worse        [D] 他们的成绩差得多
[分析] 推理判断题。
第三段末句讲到古希腊奥运会运动员的成绩和现代运动员的成绩相比较究竟如何时,作者谈到we unfortunately have no means of telling(我们没有判断的依据)。此处,means意为objects or systems by which a result is achieved;tell意为to judge sth correctly。据此可知,[C]选项为合理推断。同时可知[B]、[D]错误。根据文章我们无法推知是希腊人没有办法记录这些成绩,还是我们无法得到这些记录,因此 [A]过于绝对。
20.        Nowadays, the athletes’ expenses are paid for ________.        20.现在,运动员的花费由____支付。
[A] out of the prize money of the winners        [A] 获胜者的奖金
[B] out of the funds raised by the competing nations        [B] 参赛国筹集的基金
[C] by the athletes themselves        [C] 运动员自己
[D] by contributions        [D] 捐助资金
[分析]本题考查的知识点是:事实细节题。
第五段②句指出,各国运动员的费用由本国负责(competing countries pay their own athletes’ expenses),因此[B]正确。

五、全文翻译
在古希腊,运动节日非常重要且与宗教紧密相关。为纪念奥林匹亚山的众神之主宙斯, 奥林匹克运动节每四年举办一次,最后失去了区域性特征,先是演变为全国性的运动会,当反对外国运动员参赛的规定被废除后,又继而成为了国际性的运动会。没有人确切地知道奥运会可以追溯到何时,但是一些官方记录始于公元前776年。
运动会八月份在奥林匹斯山旁边的平原举行。成千上万的观众从希腊各地聚集到这里,但是已婚妇女连做观众的资格都没有。奴隶、妇女和那些声誉不好的人不允许参加竞赛。项目的顺序不确定,但包括男子体操、拳击、摔跤、赛马以及一些田径项目,尽管这相对于现代运动会来说项目很少。
在比赛的最后一天,所有的获胜者将会头戴一个由橄榄树叶编成的圣洁花环。赛跑获胜者会获得极高的荣誉:他获胜的这一年将会以他的名字来命名。尽管奥运会获胜者不会获得任何奖金,但实际上,他们会获得城邦政府所给予的丰厚奖赏。遗憾的是,至于他们的比赛成绩与现代标准相比究竟如何,我们没有依据作出判断。   
经过大约1200 年连续的历史之后,奥运会在公元394年被罗马人取消了。奥运会之所以能够在如此长的一段时间内连续举办是因为人们相信奥林匹克蕴含的精神:健康的体魄产生健康的思想,体育运动中的竞争精神优于导致战争的竞争。大约1500年之后,这样的国际性运动员大聚会于1896年在雅典重新举行。   
现在,奥运会在不同的国家轮流举办。主办国提供大量的设施,包括体育场、游泳池和住处,但是运动员的花费由参赛国自己负责。   
由奥林匹斯山上的阳光点燃的火炬进入体育场标志着奥运会正式开始。多人跑步将其接力传递到体育场。火炬象征着古希腊运动思想的延续,它将一直燃烧到运动会的闭幕式。但著名的奥运会会旗却是一个现代的概念;串连在一起的五环象征着参加运动会的五个大洲紧密团结在一起。
Text 3

①In science the meaning of the word “explain” suffers with civilization’s every step in search of reality. ②Science cannot really explain electricity, magnetism, and gravitation; their effects can be measured and predicted, but of their nature no more is known to the modern scientist than to Thales who first looked into the nature of the electrification of amber, a hard yellowish-brown gum. ③Most contemporary physicists reject the notion that man can ever discover what these mysterious forces “really” are. ④“Electricity,” Bertrand Russell says, “is not a thing, like St. Paul’s Cathedral; it is a way in which things behave. ⑤When we have told how things behave when they are electrified, and under what circumstances they are electrified, we have told all there is to tell.” ⑥Until recently scientists would have disapproved of such an idea. ⑦Aristotle, for example, whose natural science dominated Western thought for two thousand years, believed that man could arrive at an understanding of reality by reasoning from self-evident principles. ⑧He felt, for example, that it is a self-evident principle that everything in the universe has its proper place, hence one can deduce that objects fall to the ground because that’s where they belong, and smoke goes up because that’s where it belongs. ⑨The goal of Aristotelian science was to explain why things happen. ⑩Modern science was born when Galileo began trying to explain how things happen and thus originated the method of controlled experiment which now forms the basis of scientific investigation.

一、词汇
1. electrification 带电                                                2. dominate 有巨大影响
3. disapprove 不赞同                                                4.self-evident不证自明的
5. contemporary当代的                                         6. gravitation 重力
7. amber 琥珀                                                                8. gum 橡胶
二、长难句
1. Science cannot really explain electricity, magnetism, and gravitation; their effects can be measured and predicted, but of their nature no more is known to the modern scientist than to Thales who first looked into the nature of the electrification of amber, a hard yellowish-brown gum.
该句为分号连接的两个并列句。第二个分句又是but连接的两个并列分句,其中but后的分句的主干是no more is known to the modern scientist than to Thales,介词短语of their nature做后置定语,修饰no more,who引导的定语从句做后置定语,限制修饰Thales。
翻译:科学无法真正解释电、磁及重力;我们可以测量并推断其效应,但对于其本质的了解,没有哪位现代科学家能够超越琥珀(一种坚硬的黄褐色橡胶)带电的首位研究者泰利斯。
2. Aristotle, for example, whose natural science d Western thought for two thousand years, believed that man could arrive at an understanding of reality by reasoning from self-evident principles.
该句中的插入语for example表明它与上文是例证关系。句子的主干是Aristotle believed that,主谓之间插入了whose引导的定语从句,修饰限定主语Aristotle。that后接宾语从句,该从句的主干是man could arrive at an understanding of reality,介词短语bv …做方式状语。
翻译:例如,其自然科学主导西方研究两千年的亚里士多德认为,人类能够通过推理不证自明的原理,达到对现实的了解。
3. He felt, for example, that it is a self-evident principle that everything in the universe has its proper place, hence one can deduce that objects fall to the ground because that’s where they belong, and smoke goes up because that’s where it belongs.
该句的插入语for example表明它与上文是例证关系。句子的主干是He felt that,that引导宾语从句。从句的主干是it is a self-evident principle that,其中it为形式主语,that引导的主语从句做真正的主语。主语从句是一个主从符合句,hence引导结果状语从句。该状语从句中又嵌套了that引导的宾语从句。
翻译:比如,他认为,“宇宙万物皆有其位”是一条不证自明的原理,由此可以推断,物体下落是因为它们属于地面,烟雾上升是因为它属于天空。
4. Modern science was born when Galileo began trying to explain how things happen and thus originated the method of controlled experiment which now forms the basis of scientific investigation.
该句为主从复合句,when引导时间状语从句。从句的主干是Galileo began trying to explain … and thus originated the method,句末which引导定语从句,修饰先行词the method of controlled experiment。
翻译:当伽利略试图解释事情如何得以发生的,从而引入了现在已是科学研究基本形式的控制实验法时,现代科学应运而生了。

三、文章结构分析
本文以“explain”一词在科学领域的含义的变化为切入点,通过引用历史上著名科学家的观点并简要分析他们在历史上的成就,阐明科学的目的在于解释现实,而这也是科学发展的使命及现代科学研究的基石。本文主要采用了引证法、例证法以及因果论证法。
第一句:提出全文主旨,即随着人类文明探索现实的进步,“解释”一词的在科学领域的意义在日益退步。
第二至五句:指出现代科学的看法:人类无法解释电、磁等神秘力量的本质。
第六至九句:以亚里士多德为例指出以前的科学家的看法:人类能够通过对不证自明的原理进行推理,发现这些神秘力量的本质,即解释事情为何发生。
第十句:现代科学旨在解释现实中的事情如何发生。

四、试题具体分析

21.        The aim of controlled scientific experiments is ________.        21.控制科学实验的目的是______。
[A] to explain why things happen        [A] 解释事情为什么发生
[B] to explain how things happen        [B] 解释事情如何发生
[C] to describe self-evident principles        [C] 描述不证自明的原理
[D] to support Aristotelian science        [D] 支持亚里士多德科学
[分析] 本题考查知识点:事实细节题
根据题干关键词controlled scientific experiments定位到文章最后一句。该句指出,控制实验法形成于伽利略试图解释事情如何得以发生之时。由此可知,控制科学实验的目的在于解释事情是如何发生的,[B]为正确选项。
[A]选项张冠李戴,该内容为为亚里士多德科学的目的。[C]、[D]分别为利用文中关键词self-evident principles和Aristotelian science捏造的干扰。
22.        What principles most influenced scientific thought for two thousand years?        22.两千年来,对科学思想影响最大的原理是______。
[A] the speculations of Thales        [A] 泰利斯推测
[B] the forces of electricity, magnetism, and gravity        [B] 电、磁、重力等力量
[C] Aristotle’s natural science        [C] 亚里士多德的自然科学
[D] Galileo’s discoveries        [D] 伽利略的发现
[分析]本题考核的知识点是:事实细节题。
文章⑦句指出,亚里士多德的自然科学主宰(dominate)西方科学长达2000年之久,dominate此处意为have a lot of influence over sb or sth, [C]选项正确。
23.        Bertrand Russell’s notion about electricity is ________.        23.伯特兰•罗素关于电的理念______。
[A] disapproved of by most modern scientists        [A] 为大多数现代科学家所否认
[B] in agreement with Aristotle’s theory of self-evident principles        [B] 和亚里士多德的不证自明原理理论相一致
[C] in agreement with scientific investigation directed toward “how” things happen        [C] 和旨在解释事情如何发生的科学研究相一致
[D] in agreement with scientific investigation directed toward “why” things happen        [D] 和旨在解释事情为何发生的科学研究相一致
[分析]本题考核的知识点是:细节综合题。
根据题干中人物关键词Bertrand Russell定位到文章④句。该句描述了罗素对于电的解释:电不是一种物质,而是物质的一种行为方式。我们所能知道的只是物质带电的表现和条件。由此可知,其观点和旨在解释事情如何发生的科学研究相一致,how things behave when they are electrified, and under what circumstances they are electrified 即为对how things happen的具体阐述,故[C]选项正确,同时排除[D]选项。
文中并没有提及现代科学家对罗素关于电的理念的看法,也没有提及它和亚里士多德不证自明原理理论的联系,[A]、[B]选项无中生有。

24.        The passage says that until recently scientists disagreed with the idea ________.        24.本文提到,直到最近,科学家才开始同意____的观点
[A] that there are mysterious forces in the universe        [A] 宇宙中存在神秘力量
[B] that man cannot discover what forces “really” are        [B] 人类无法发现力量“到底”是什么
[C] that there are self-evident principles        [C] 确实存在不证自明原理
[D] that we can discover why things behave as they do        [D] 我们能够发现事物为什么表现出特定的行为
[分析] 本题考核知识点:观点细节题。
文章③句指出,当代物理学家大都否认人类能够发现这些神秘力量‘到底’是什么。④⑤句以伯特兰•罗素对电的看法为例证明第三句说法。该部分指出,罗素认为我们只能说明物质带电的行为和条件(,而无法解释其本质)。⑥句用虚拟语气指出,不久以前的科学家还不同意这一观点(人类无法发现这些神秘力量的本质),即,科学家只是最近才开始同意这一观点。紧接着⑦句以亚里士多德的观点为例证明⑥句说法。该部分指出,亚里士多德认为人类“可以发现“这些神秘力量的本质(man could arrive at an understanding of reality)。综上所述,[B]选项正确。
由上文分析可知,无论是2000年前的科学家还是现在的科学家都承认宇宙中存在神秘力量,[A]项与文意不符。[C]、[D]两项则没有提及。
25.        Modern science came into being ________.        25.现代科学形成于____时。
[A] when the method of controlled experiment was first introduced        [A] 最初引入控制实验法
[B] when Galileo succeeded in explaining how things happen        [B] 伽利略成功地解释事情如何发生
[C] when Aristotelian scientist tried to explain why things happen        [C] 亚里士多德派科学家试图解释为何事情会发生时
[D] when scientists were able to acquire an understanding of reality of reasoning        [D] 科学家通过推理了解了现实
[分析] 本题考查知识点:事实细节题。
根据题干定位到文章最后一句。该句指出,现代科学形成于伽利略引入控制实验法以试图解释事情如何发生之时。故[A]选项正确,同时否定[C]选项。[B]选项偷梁换柱,将began trying to改为succeed in,从而产生含义偏差。[D]选项将尚未发生的事情当作已经实现的事实。⑦句只提到亚里士多德相信人类可以通过推理了解现实,但由文中论述可知这并未实现。

五、全文翻译
随着人类文明探索现实的进步,“解释”一词的在科学领域的含义却在日益退步。科学无法真正解释电、磁及重力;我们可以测量并推断其效应,但对于其本质的了解,没有哪位现代科学家能够超越琥珀(一种坚硬的黄褐色橡胶)带电的首位研究者泰利斯。当代物理学家大都否认“人类能够发现这些神秘力量‘到底’是什么”的理念。伯特兰•罗素说“电不像圣保罗大教堂一样,是一种事物;它是事物行为的一种方式。我们所能断言的全部就是事物带电后的行为及其带电的环境”。不久以前,科学家们还不赞同这种观点(人类不能发现这些神秘力量的本质)。例如,其自然科学主导西方研究两千年的亚里士多德认为,人类能够通过推理不证自明的原理,达到对现实的了解。比如,他认为,“宇宙万物皆有其位”是一条不证自明的原理,由此可以推断,物体下落是因为它们属于地面,烟雾上升是因为它属于天空。亚里士多德科学的目的是解释事情为什么会发生。当伽利略试图解释事情如何得以发生的,从而引入了现在已是科学研究基本形式的控制实验法时,现代科学应运而生了。
补充:
1. 泰勒斯(Thales 约前625~前547)
古希腊哲学家,数学家,天文学家。最早的唯物主义哲学学派。他几乎涉猎了当时人类的全部思想和活动领域,被誉为希腊科学之父。
2. 伯特兰•罗素(Bertrand Russell 1872-1970)
20世纪声誉卓著、影响深远的思想家之一。在其漫长的一生中,完成了40余部著作,涉及哲学、数学、科学、论理学、社会学、教育、历史、宗教及政治等各个领域,对西方哲学产生了深刻影响。1950年获诺贝尔文学奖。


Section III        English-Chinese Translation
Translate the following passage into Chinese. Only the underlined sentences are to be translated. (20 points)

Have there always been cities? (26) Life without large urban areas may seem inconceivable to us, but actually cities are relatively recent development. Groups with primitive economics still manage without them. The trend, however, is for such groups to disappear, while cities are increasingly becoming the dominant mode of man’s social existence. (27) Historically, city life has always been among the elements which form a civilization. Any high degree of human endeavor and achievement has been closely linked to life in an urban environment. (28) It is virtually impossible to imagine that universities, hospitals, large businesses or even science and technology could have come into being without cities to support them. To most people, cities have traditionally been the areas where there was a concentration of culture as well as of opportunity. (29) In recent years, however, people have begun to become aware that cities are also areas where there is a concentration of problems. What has happened to the modern American city? Actually, the problem is not such a new one. Long before this century started, there had begun a trend toward the concentration of the poor of the American society into the cities. Each great wave of immigration from abroad and from the rural areas made the problem worse. During this century, there has also been the development of large suburban areas surrounding the cities, for the rich prefer to live in these areas. Within the cities, sections may be sharply divided into high and low rent districts, the “right side of town” and the slums.
Of course, everyone wants to do something about this unhappy situation. But there is no agreement as to goals. Neither is there any systematic approach or integrated program. Opinions are as diverse as the people who give them. (30) But one basic difference of opinion concerns the question of whether or not the city as such is to be preserved. Perhaps transportation and the means of communication have really made it possible for there to be an end to the big cities. Of course, there is the problem of persuading people to move out of them of their own free will. (31) And there is also the objection that the city has always been the core from which cultural advancement has radiated. Is this, however, still the case today in the presence of easy transportation and communication? Does culture arise as a result of people living together communally, or is it too the result of decisions made at the level of government and the communications industry?
It is probably true to say that most people prefer to preserve the cities. Some think that the cities could be cleaned up or totally rebuilt. This is easy to say; it would not be so easy to do. (32) To be sure, a great rebuilding project would give jobs to many of those people who need them. Living conditions could not help but improve, at least for a while. But would the problems return after the rebuilding was completed?
Nevertheless, with the majority of the people living in urban areas, the problem of the cities must be solved. (33) From agreement on this general goal, we have, unfortunately, in the past proceeded to disagreement on specific goals, and from there to total inaction. At the basis of much of this inaction is an old-fashioned concept -- the idea human conditions will naturally tend to regulate themselves for the general goal.

一、试题结构分析
本文先论述城市对于人类生活的重要性,接着提到城市带来的问题。最后介绍有关目前这样的城市是否应该保存下去而产生的不同意见。


二、试题具体解析
26.        本题考核的知识点是:并列分句。
【句子结构】该句是but连接的两个并列分句,前一分句的主干为Life may seem inconceivable,其中主语后介词短语without urban areas做定语;后一分句的主干是cities are relatively recent development。
【词义确定】inconceivable意为“不可思议的”。
【翻译】对我们来说,生活要是没有广大的城市地区似乎是不可想象的,但实际上城市还是比较按期才发展起来的。
27. 本题考核的知识点是:定语从句。
【句子结构】该句主干是city life has always been among the elements,which引导定语从句修饰elements。
【词义确定】element意为“要素”。
【翻译】从历史上看,城市生活始终是文明的一个组成部分。
28. 本题考核的知识点是:形式主语,宾语从句。
【句子结构】该句的主干为It is virtually impossible to imagine …,其中it为形式主语,不定式结构to imagine …是真正的主语。that引导的从句做imagine的宾语。
【词义确定】come into being意为“出现,存在,形成”。
【翻译】如果没有城市的支持,简直难以想象会有大学,医院,大企业,甚至连科学技术也不会有。
29. 本题考核的知识点是:宾语从句、定语从句。
【句子结构】however一词表明本句与上文之间的转折关系。该句的主干为people have begun to become aware that …,that引导宾语从句。从句的主干是cities are also areas,where引导的定语从句修饰areas。
【词义确定】aware意为“意识到的”;concentration意为“集中”。
【翻译】可是,近几年来人们开始意识到城市也是问题集中的地方。
30. 本题考核的知识点是:后置定语、宾语从句。
【句子结构】该句的主干为But one basic difference of opinion concerns the question,of引导的介词短语做后置定语,修饰question,说明是什么样的问题。whether or not引导的宾语从句做介词of的宾语。
【词义确定】concern意为“涉及,与...有关”;preserve意为“保存,保持”。
【翻译】但是,一个最主要的分歧意见是,像目前这样的城市是否还要保存下去。
31. 本题考核的知识点是:同位语从句、定语从句。
【句子结构】该句的主干为And there is also the objection,that引导同位语从句,说明objection的具体内容。从句的主干为the city has always been the core,from which引导的定语从句,做后置定语,修饰the core。
【词义确定】objection意为“反对,异议”;core意为“核心”;advancement意为“前进,进步”;radiate意为“散发,辐射”。
【翻译】同时也有人反对说,文化方面的进步,始终是以城市为中心而向外辐射的。
32. 本题考核的知识点是:。
【句子结构】不定式短语to be sure做插入语,用来表示说话者对句子所表达的意思的态度。该句的主干是a great rebuilding project would give jobs to many of those people,who引导的定语从句修饰those people。
【词义确定】to be sure意为“无疑地”。
【翻译】诚然,一个宏伟的重建计划也许能为许多需要工作的人提供就业机会。
33. 本题考核的知识点是:。
【句子结构】该句的主干是we have proceeded (from agreement on …) to disagreement … and from there to total inaction。介词短语from agreement on …提前到句首。副词unfortunately用作插入语,表示说话者对句子所表达的意思的态度。
【词义确定】general意为“普遍的”;unfortunately意为“不幸的是”;proceed意为“行进,前往;继而做”;total意为“全然的”;inaction意为“不活动,无为”。
【翻译】遗憾的是,过去我们在总目标方面意见是一致的,但涉及到各个具体目标时,意见就不一致,因而也就根本没有什么行动。

三、全文翻译
        一直以来都有城市吗?(26)对我们来说,生活要是没有广大的城市地区似乎是不可想象的,但实际上城市还是比较晚才发展起来的。拥有原始经济形态的群体在没有城市的情况下也仍然可以应付。然而趋势是:随着城市日益成为人类社会存在的主要形式,这些群体也在消失。(27)从历史上看,城市生活始终是文明的一个组成部分。任何高等的人类活动和成就总是与城市环境中的生活紧密相关。(28)如果没有城市的支持,简直难以想象会有大学、医院、大企业,甚至连科学技术也不会有。对大多数人而言,城市历来就是文化和机会都集中的地区。(29)可是,近几年来人们开始意识到城市也是问题集中的地方。现代美国城市发生了什么?事实上这不是一个新问题。早在本世纪以前,一种美国社会的穷人向城市聚集的趋势就已经出现。每一次国外或乡村地区的移民潮使问题更加严重。本世纪中也出现了城市周围郊区的大面积发展,因为富人愿意住在这些地区。而城市地区则被明显划分为不同的地区:高租金区、低租金区、贫民窟。
当然,每个人都想采取措施改变这种不愉快的局面。但是就措施的目标没有一致意见。既没有系统的方法,也没有统一的规划。观点也因人而异。(30)但是,一个最主要的分歧意见是,像目前这样的城市是否还要保存下去。也许交通和通信方式已经真的使大城市的终结成为可能。当然,说服人们自愿搬离城市的问题仍然存在。(31)同时也有人反对说,文化方面的进步,始终是以城市为中心而向外辐射的。然而,如今有了便捷的交通和通信,这种情况仍然存在吗?文化的兴起是因为人们共同居住在一起,或者也因为政府和通信行业做出的决定。
认为大部分人愿意保存城市的观点可能是正确的。一些人认为城市可以被彻底清理干净或重建。说起来容易,做起来难。(32)诚然,一个宏伟的重建计划也许能为许多需要工作的人提供就业机会。居住条件的改变不能解决问题,但可以有所改善。但是重建完成后问题会再次出现吗?
然而,由于大多数人都居住在城市地区,因此城市的问题必须解决。(33)遗憾的是,过去我们在总目标方面意见是一致的,但涉及到各个具体目标时,意见就不一致,因而也就根本没有什么行动。不采取行动的根本原因很大程度上是陈腐的观点:人类条件会自然地自行调节,以适应总的目标。




1988年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题

Section I Close Test
For each numbered blank in the following passage there are four choices labeled [A], [B], [C], and [D]. Choose the best one and put your choice in the ANSWER SHEET. Read the whole passage before making your choice. (10 points)

①In 1620, a small sailboat named the Mayflower left England for the New World. ②The Mayflower headed for the Jamestown colony on the warm shore of Virginia. ③Its one hundred passengers were the Pilgrims. ④They were looking for a place where they could worship God    1  .    ⑤Because of strong winds and severe storms, the Mayflower lost its   2  . ⑥The brave group of colonists finally had to land at Plymouth on the rocky coast of Massachusetts in December 1620. ⑦It was the middle of the stern northern winter. ⑧  3   months of starvation, disease, and death were ahead of them. ⑨Only the strongest of the pilgrims   4   that winter. ⑩Many women gave their own pitiful rations to their children and died for lack of food for themselves. ○11Living   5   began to improve in the spring of 1621. ○12There were wild vegetables. ○13There were berries and fruit. ○14Fish and game were plentiful. ○15Therefore, they were able to get enough fresh meat despite their lack of skill or experience in hunting and fishing. ○16The colonists’ health   6   with the warm weather and their better diet.
○17In the fall, they look back   7   the past year. ○18They were both regretful and thankful. ○19Only fifty of the original one hundred passengers remained. ○20The price in human life and tragedy had been great. ○21On the other hand, they saw new hope for the future. ○22A splendid harvest was   8   them. ○23They were ready for the second winter with confidence. ○24They had eleven crude houses for protection against the severe winter. ○25Seven were for families, and four were for communal use. ○26  9  , they had established a treaty of friendship with their Indian neighbors under Chief Massasoit in the summer.
○27The woods and forests became safe. ○28When the Mayflower returned to England that summer, there were no colonists   10  . ○29At the end of their first year in their new home, the Pilgrims wanted to celebrate with a real holiday. ○30It was their first Thanks giving Day. [328 words]
1. [A] in their own style                                                [B] in their own way       
[C] on their own                                                        [D] of their own
2. [A] course                        [B] route                        [C] passage                [D] channel
3. [A] Uncomfortable        [B] Bad                        [C] Unfavourable        [D] Terrible
4. [A] passed                        [B] sustained                [C] survived                [D] spent
5. [A] situations                                                        [B] environments
[C] conditions                                                        [D] circumstances
6. [A] strengthened                [B] regained                [C] recovered                [D] improved
7. [A] in                                [B] of                        [C] over                        [D] at
8. [A] on                                [B] behind                        [C] for                        [D] beyond
9. [A] Best of all                [B] For the best                [C] To their best        [D] All in all
10.[A] ashore                        [B] around                        [C] about                        [D] aboard

试题精解

一、文章结构分析
本文是一篇记叙文,讲述了“五月花号”抵达美洲新大陆的情况及感恩节的来历。
第一段交代了文章的背景:一批殖民者到达北美新大陆。①至④句介绍了“五月花号”前往美洲的原因,⑤至⑩句介绍了“五月花号”上的朝圣者在途中以及登陆后遇到的困难,○11至○16句介绍了他们生活条件得到好转的原因及表现。
第二段通过对过去的回顾与对未来的展望,叙述了朝圣者怀有感恩的心态并与当地印第安人签署友好协定,为下文感恩节的形成做了铺垫。
第三段说明了感恩节产生的直接原因:朝圣者想庆祝他们定居新家的第一年。

二、试题具体分析

1. [A] in their own style                                [B] in their own way以…特有的方式
[C] on their own单独,独立地                [D] of their own自己的,本人的
本题考核的知识点是:句内语义+固定短语
[快速解题]空格处填入的短语作状语,修饰worship God,说明朝圣者前往新大陆的原因。in one’s own way是固定搭配,意为“以…特有的方式”,代入文中意为“以他们特有的方式敬仰上帝”,符合上下文逻辑关系,为正确答案。on their own与of their own不符合文意,style虽然可以表示“方式、方法”,但该含义不用于in one’s own…结构,应排除。
[篇章分析]①至④句是第一段的第一个层次,揭示了五月花号前往新大陆的原因。④句是一个复合句,主干为They were looking for a place,后接where引导的定语从句修饰place。
[空格设置]in one’s own way是固定短语,如:I expect she does love you in her own way.我想她的确是以她特有的方式爱你。
[干扰项设置]其他项利用常见的固定搭配设置干扰。例句:The accident happened through no fault of her own.这一事故的发生不是她本人的过错。He did it on his own.这件事他独立完成了。
2. [A] course航向,航线                        [B] route路线,路途
[C] passage通道,航程                        [D] channel渠道,海峡
本题考核的知识点是:名词词义辨析
[快速解题]空格处填入的名词作lost的宾语,因此此题关键是判断那个选项可与lost搭配且符合文意。四个选项构成的动宾搭配分别表示“迷失航向”、“迷失路线”、“迷失航程”和“迷失海峡”,显然不存在后两种搭配,首先排除[C]和[D]。由于文中具体指出了是海上航行,因此排除常指“地面路线”的route,最佳答案为[A]course。
[篇章分析]⑤至⑩句是第一段的第二个层次,分别介绍了朝圣者在航行中及登陆后遇到的困难。
[空格设置]course除了考生熟悉的表示“课程”的含义外,还可意为“(船或飞机的)航向,航线“,如:The plane was on/off course.飞机航向正确/偏离航向。
[干扰项设置]其他项利用其他表示“路径”的词对course形成近义干扰。例句:Which is the best route to take? 哪一条是最佳路线?This passage will take us to the other building.穿过这条通道,我们就可以到达另一座大楼。Complaints must be made through the proper channels.投诉必须通过正当途径进行。
3.[A] Uncomfortable令人不舒适的        [B] Bad令人不快的,坏的
[C] Unfavourable不利的,有害的        [D] Terrible可怕的,造成极大伤害的
本题考核的知识点是:上下文语义+形容词辨析
[快速解题]空格处填入的形容词做定语修饰months,意为“…的几个月”。months后面的of…介词结构也做定语后置修饰months,由of后面的一系列名词“starvation、disease、death”可知,这几个月的情况是极其严重的,因此,在四个选项中应选择表示恶劣程度最深的terrible。
[空格设置]terrible的词义和用法比较简单,本题需要考生理解上下文的具体内容做出选择。
[干扰项设置]其他项利用表示“不利的”的形容词设置干扰,考生需结合词语表达含义的程度与具体语境排除干扰。
4. [A] passed通过,经过;消磨,度过                        [B] sustained维持(生命、生存)
[C] survived生存;幸存,挺过,艰难度过                [D] spent花(时间),度过
本题考核的知识点是:上下文语义+动词辨析
[快速解题]空格所在部分意为“朝圣者中只有最为强壮的人…那个冬天”。pass常用于指无聊或等人时打发、消磨时间;spend强调以某种方式花时间,常接on sth或in doing sth来表示方式。sustain虽然含有“生存”的意思,但其后常接life或人作宾语,不符合文中用法。符合上下文意的只有survive,指“艰难挺过那个冬天”,与上一题中的terrible相呼应。
[空格设置]本题借survive考查了考生对上下文的理解。例句:I can’t survive on $40 a week.一星期40美元,我无法维持生活。
[干扰项设置]其他项是利用表示“度过”的动词对survive构成近义干扰,考生要在理解词义的基础上对单词的用法区别掌握。例句:We sang songs to pass the time.我们借唱歌消磨时间。Few planets can sustain life.能够维持生命存在的行星很少。How long did you spend on your homework? 你做家庭作业用了多长时间?
5. [A] situations情况,状况                                [B] environments环境
[C] conditions环境,条件                        [D] circumstances条件,状况
本题考核的知识点是:上下文语义+名词辨析
[快速解题]空格所在部分living  5  意为“生活…”,四个选项都含有“环境,状况”的意思,但是侧重点各有不同。situation强调特定时期和特定地点形势、局面,environments特指影响个体或事物行为或发展的环境,conditions指居住、工作或做事情的环境或条件,circumstances尤其指经济状况。由living以及下文的vegetables、berries等词可知,这里指的是人们的生活条件得到改善,符合文意的为[C]conditions.
[篇章分析]○11句至○16句是第一段的第三个层次,指出了朝圣者在新的定居点生活条件得到改善的原因及表现。
[空格设置]conditions本身词义比较简单,但要求考生根据上下文语境排除干扰,作出正确判断。例句:changing economic conditions不断变化的经济状况。
[干扰项设置]其他项利用表示“环境、状况”的名词对conditions形成近义干扰。这几个词虽然含义相近,但用法上各有不同,例句如:We have all been in similar embarrassing situations.我们都遇到过类似的尴尬局面。They have created an environment in which productivity should flourish.他们创造了一种可以大大提高生产力的环境。Grants are awarded according to your financial circumstances.补助金根据经济状况发放。
6. [A]strengthened加强,巩固                        [B]regained 重新获得,恢复
[C]recovered恢复健康,康复                        [D]improved 改进,改善
本题考核的知识点是:动词辨析
[快速解题]空格所在部分的主语是the colonists’ health,此题的关键是判断哪个动词能与health搭配,并且能与上下文衔接。strengthened指“增强能力或地位等”,不能与health搭配,首先排除。regained意为“恢复”时常做及物动词,不符合文中用法,但是可以说…regained health。recovered本身即意为“恢复健康”,不需要health作主语。符合上下文语义的只有improve,在文中意为“健康得到改善”。  
[篇章分析]○16句的主干部分是The colonists’ health improved,介词with的用法比较特殊,表原因,介宾短语with…解释了health improved的原因。
[空格设置]improve的含义比较简单,但用法很丰富,可以泛指各方面的“改善、提高”,如:His quality of life has improved dramatically since the operation.手术后他的生活质量大大改善了。to improve efficiency/standards/conditions提高效率/标准;改善条件。
[干扰项设置]其他项利用考生熟悉的汉语表达法设置干扰。汉语里经常有“恢复健康、增强健康”的表达方式,考生要熟悉英汉两种语言表达方式的区别,排除干扰。例句:Her position in the party has strengthened in recent weeks.最近几个星期以来,她在党内的地位有所增强。I struggled to regain some dignity.我努力恢复自己的一点儿尊严。He’s still recovering from his operation.手术后,他仍在恢复之中。
7. [A] in                        [B] of                        [C] over                        [D] at
本题考核的知识点是:介词搭配
[快速解题]空格处填入的介词既要与look back搭配,又要能接the past year作宾语。不存在look back in与look back of的用法,首先排除[A]和[B]。look back over与look back at都可意为“回顾”,但look back at后面接具体的时间或事物,look back over后面接特定阶段,显然文中the past year强调的是一个时间段,符合要求的是look back over,代入文中意为“回顾过去的一年”。  
[篇章分析]第二段分为两个层次:○17至○20句是对过去的回顾,○21至○26句是对未来的展望与准备。○21句句首on the other hand表明了这种今昔对比。
[空格设置]介词over的含义和用法都很丰富,在知识运用的文章中经常出现,考生要结合具体语境掌握该词用法。
[干扰项设置]其他项利用其他可与look搭配的常用介词设置干扰,需要正确理解上下文才排除干扰。
8. [A] on                        [B] behind                        [C] for                        [D] beyond
本题考核的知识点是:上下文语义+介词辨析
[快速解题]空格所在部分A splendid harvest was  8  them,意为“一个大丰收…他们”。由○17句in the fall和○23句ready for the second winter可知,他们在秋天已经取得大丰收,并为第二年冬天做准备。behind意为used to say that sth is in sb’s past,它代入文中,意为“他们身后是(秋天的)一个大丰收”,即“已经获得了丰收”。其他项与them搭配分别意为“由他们支付”、“为了他们”与“他们无法理解“,均不符合上下文语义,应排除。
[篇章分析]○21句是第二段第二个层次的总起句,指出了对未来的希望。○22句至段末分别从食物、住所以及人际关系三方面举出了充满希望的原因。
[空格设置]本题通过behind考查了考生对文章内部时间逻辑的把握,及它本身不为考生所熟悉的含义。例句:She has ten years’ useful experience behind her.她已有十年的经验,能派上用场。
[干扰项设置]其他项都是利用常用介词设置的脱离上下文的无关干扰,联系上下文语义不难排除。
9. [A] Best of all最好的是,尤其                [B] For the best出于好意
[C] To their best                                        [D] All in all总的来说
本题考核的知识点是:逻辑关系
[快速解题]空格处填入的短语放在句首,体现句子之间的逻辑关系,此题的关键是判断空格前后部分的逻辑关系。to their best短语不存在,首先排除。上**是讲殖民者为来年做的物质准备,○26句重在强调人际关系方面的改善,体现这种强调关系的只有best of all。
[篇章分析]○26句虽然是一个简单句,但是句子结构比较复杂,主干为they had established a treaty of friendship,句首的best of all与with..,under…,in…三个介宾短语做状语。
[空格设置]逻辑关系在知识运用中的考查比重越来越大,需要考生提高语篇结构的分析能力。例句如:Best of all, we don’t have any homework.最好的是我们没有什么家庭作业了。
[干扰项设置]其他项都是利用词形设置的形近干扰。例句:I did it for the best.我是出于好意这么做的。All in all it has been a great success.总的来说,那是个巨大的成功。
10.[A] ashore在岸上                        [B] around周围
[C] about到处                                [D] aboard在(船、车飞机)上
本题考核的知识点是:上下文语义+副词辨析
[快速解题]空格所在部分意为“当‘五月花号’返回英格兰的时候,没有一名殖民者…”,显然,表示“在船上”的aboard符合文章语义的衔接,为正确选项。其他三项不符合上下文,应排除。
[篇章分析]○27○28句承接上文,总结指出殖民者生活状况好转,他们在殖民地定居下来。○29句是过渡句,指出他们想要建立一个节日庆祝新的生活,由此引出○30句感恩节的来历。
[空格设置]aboard的含义和用法都比较简单,但需要根据上下文进行推断。
[干扰项设置]其他项是利用aboard的形近词设置的干扰,由于都脱离了上下文,不难排除。
三、全文翻译

1620年,一艘被命名为“五月花号”的小帆船离开伦敦驶往新大陆。“五月花号”向位于弗吉尼亚州温暖海岸的詹姆斯顿殖民地行进。船上的一百名乘客都是朝圣者,他们正在寻找一个地方,在那里他们能以自己特有的方式敬仰上帝。由于狂风和凶猛的暴风雨,“五月花号”迷失了航向。1620年12月份,这一群勇敢的殖民者最终不得不在位于马萨诸塞州岩石嶙嶙海岸的普利茅斯登陆。当时正是北方严冬时期,他们将面对的是充满了饥饿、疾病和死亡的极其可怕的几个月。朝圣者中只有最为强壮的人活过了那个冬天。许多妇女把她们少得可怜的口粮留给了自己的孩子,自己却死于饥饿。生活条件在1621年的春天开始改善:有了野菜、浆果和水果以及充足的鱼和野禽。因此,尽管缺乏狩猎、捕鱼的技巧和经验,他们也能够获得足够的新鲜肉类。由于天气变暖和饮食的改善,殖民者们的健康状况得以好转。
在秋天,他们回顾了过去的一年,既遗憾又感激。最初的一百名乘客只有五十人存活了下来,人类生命的代价和和悲剧是如此巨大。另一方面,他们看到了未来的新希望。在他们身后是(秋天的)一个大丰收,他们充满自信地为第二个冬天的到来做好了准备。他们有十一所用于抵御严冬的简陋房屋,其中的七所为家庭所有,四所作为公用。最重要的是,在马萨索特酋长的监管下,他们在夏天与其印第安邻居订立了友好协定。
林地和森林变安全了。那年夏天,当“五月花号”返回英格兰的时候,船上没有一名殖民者。在他们定居新家的第一年年底,这些朝圣者想以一个真正的节日来庆祝,这便是他们的第一个感恩节。

Section II        Reading Comprehension

Each of the two passages below is followed by five questions. For each question there are four answers. Read the passages carefully and choose the best answer to each of the questions. Put your choice in the brackets on the left. (10 points)
Text 1
①It doesn’t come as a surprise to you to realize that it makes no difference what you read or study if you can’t remember it. ②You just waste your valuable time. ③Maybe you have already discovered some clever ways to keep yourself from forgetting.
①One dependable aid that does help you remember what you study is to have a specific purpose or reason for reading. ②You remember better what you read when you know why you’re reading.
①Why does a clerk in a store go away and leave you when your reply to her offer to help is, “No, thank you. I’m just looking”? ②Both you and she know that if you aren’t sure what you want, you are not likely to find it. ③But suppose you say instead, “Yes, thank you. I want a pair of sun glasses.” ④She says, “Right this way, please.” ⑤And you and she are off -- both eager to look for exactly what you want.
①It’s quite the same with your studying. ②If you chose a book at random, “just looking” for nothing in particular, you are likely to get just that -- nothing. ③But if you do know what you want, and if you have the right book, you are almost sure to get it. ④Your reasons will vary; they will include reading or studying “to find out more about”, “to understand the reasons for”, “to find out how”. ⑤A good student has a clear purpose or reason for what he is doing.
①This is the way it works. ②Before you start to study, you say to yourself something like this, “I want to know why Stephen Vincent Benet happened to write about America. I’m reading this article to find out.” ③Or, “I’m going to skim this story to see what life was like in medieval England.” ④Because you know why you are reading or studying, you relate the information to your purpose and remember it better.
①Reading is not one single activity. ②At least two important processes go on at the same time. ③As you read, you take in ideas rapidly and accurately. ④But at the same time you express your own ideas to yourself as you react to what you read. ⑤You have a kind of mental conversation with the author. ⑥If you expressed your ideas orally, they might sound like this: “Yes, I agree. That’s my opinion too.” or “Ummmm, I thought that record was broken much earlier. I’d better check those dates,” or “But there are some other facts to be considered!” ⑦You don’t just sit there taking in ideas -- you do something else, and that something else is very important.
①This additional process of thinking about what you read includes evaluating it, relating it to what you already know, and using it for your own purposes. ②In other words, a good reader is a critical reader. ③One part of critical reading, as you have discovered, is distinguishing between facts and opinions. ④Facts can be checked by evidence. ⑤Opinions are one’s own personal reactions.
①Another part of critical reading is judging sources. ②Still another part is drawing accurate inferences.

一、词汇
1.make no difference没有...作用或影响                        2.specific a. 明确的
3.suppose v. 假设,以为,认为                                        4.at random随便地,任意地
5.happen to (do sth) 碰巧(做某事)                        6.skim v. 略读
7.react to对...做出反应                                                8.take in接受,理解
二、长难句
1. It doesn’t come as a surprise to you to realize that it makes no difference what you read or study if you can’t remember it.
该句的主干为It doesn’t come as a surprise to you,其中it为形式主语,真正的主语是后面的不定式结构to realize that …,that引导的从句做realize的宾语。宾语从句为主从复合句,句末为if引导的条件状语从句,主干为it makes no difference,其中it为形式主语,真正的主语是后面的what you read or study。
翻译:如果你不能记住你所读或者所学的东西,那你读什么或学什么就无关紧要了,这一点毫不出奇。

三、文章结构分析
这篇文章主要探讨阅读和学习中记忆的方法。文章段落分散,语言平实易懂,总体可以分为三个部分。
第一部分为第一段,提出现象:指出记忆对于阅读或学习的重要性,并且记忆需要聪明的方法。
第二部分为第二至五段,叙述帮助记忆的方法之一:有目的或有原因的阅读。以购物过程和阅读过程做类比说明,有目的或有原因的阅读可以帮助读者获得明确信息并进行良好记忆。
第三部分为第六至八段,论述阅读的过程——理解内容和批判性地思考评估内容,而后者又包括区分事实与观点、评判信息来源和进行准确推理。

四、试题具体分析

11.        If you cannot remember what you read or study, ________.        11. 如果你不能记住所阅读或学习的内容,________。
[A] it is no surprise        [A] 这毫不出奇
[B] it means you have not really learned anything        [B] 这意味着你没有真正学到任何东西
[C] it means you have not chosen the right book        [C] 这意味着你没有选对阅读的书籍
[D] you realize it is of no importance        [D] 你意识到这无所谓
【分析】本题所考查的知识点是:具体细节题。
第一段指出如果你不能记住你所读或所学的内容的话,就是在浪费宝贵的时间,即你没有从中学到任何东西,[B]选项正确。
[A]和[D]选项偷换概念,第一段指出,如果不能记住所读或所学的内容,那么所读或所学内容无关紧要,这一点毫不出奇,而非“不能记住所读或所学内容”不出奇或无关紧要。[C]选项无干干扰,从文中无从推知。
12.        Before you start reading, it is important ________.        12. 在你开始阅读之前,有必要________。
[A] to make sure why you are reading        [A] 确定你阅读的原因
[B] to relate the information to your purpose        [B] 将信息与目的联系起来
[C] to remember what you read        [C] 记住你所读的内容
[D] to choose an interesting book        [D] 选择有趣的读物
【分析】本题所考查的知识点是:具体细节题。
第二段提出一种帮助记忆的可靠方法,即有目的或有原因的阅读,换句话说,就是在阅读前确定阅读的目的或原因。[A]选项正确。
[B]和[C]选项张冠李戴,它们是阅读和记忆过程中的步骤,而非阅读前的步骤。[D]选项无中生有。
13.        Reading activity involves ________.        13. 阅读行为包括________。
[A] only two simultaneous processes        [A] 仅仅两个同时发生的过程
[B] primarily learning about ideas and evaluating them critically        [B] 主要是理解内容和批判性地评估内容
[C] merely distinguishing between facts and opinions        [C] 仅仅区分事实与观点
[D] mainly drawing accurate inferences        [D] 主要进行准确推理
【分析】本题所考查的知识点是:具体细节题。
由题干关键词reading activity定位到文章第六段。第六段首句指出阅读并非一项独立的行为,它包括至少两个同时发生的重要过程。③④句列出这两个过程:迅速而准确地理解内容和以自己的思维表述对所读内容的反应。[B]选项是对这两个过程的同义改写,为正确项。
[A]选项以偏概全,第六段首句指出阅读行为至少包括(at least)两个同时发生的过程,而非仅仅(only)这两个过程。[C]和[D]选项张冠李戴,“区分事实与观点”和“进行正确推理”是最后两段提到的“对所阅读的内容进行思考的附加过程”的部分内容,而非阅读行为的直接过程。一般而言,带有绝对意味的限定性词语的选项(如only和merely)都不是正确项。
14.        A good reader is one who ________.        14. 一位好读者是________。
[A] relates what he reads to his own knowledge about the subject matter        [A] 将其所读的内容与其了解的主题相关知识联系起来
[B] does lots of thinking in his reading        [B] 在阅读过程中进行大量思考
[C] takes a critical attitude in his reading        [C] 对阅读采取批判性的态度
[D] is able to check the facts presented against what he has already known        [D] 能够将所读到的事实与已知事实核对
【分析】本题所考查的知识点是:具体细节题。
由题干关键词“a good reader”定位到第七段。②句明确指出,一位好读者就是一位批判性的读者。[C]选项是这句话的同义改写,为正确项。
[A]、[B]和[D]选项以偏概全,第七、八段论述批判性阅读,指出思考阅读内容的过程包括评估内容、将所读内容与已知内容进行联系、根据自己的目的进行应用;而批判性阅读则包括区分事实与观点、评判内容来源、进行准确推理。[A]选项是思考过程中的一点;[B]选项仅提及阅读中思考这一要素,而忽略批判性阅读的其他要素;[D]选项也只提到批判性阅读中的两点,因此其他三项都不完整。

五、全文翻译
如果你不能记住你所读或者所学的东西,那你读什么或学什么就无关紧要了,这一点毫不出奇。这样不过是浪费宝贵时间罢了。不过,或许你早已发现一些聪明的方法来避免遗忘。
一种帮助你记住所学内容的可靠方法就是有目的或有原因的阅读。如果你清楚你为何而阅读,那么你对所阅读的内容就会记得更牢靠些。
当你拒绝商店售货员的帮助(“不,谢谢,我只是看看”)时,为什么售货员就转身走开了呢?这是因为你和她都知道,如果你不确定自己要什么,你也不大可能会有所收获。然而,假设你的回答是“是的,谢谢,我想买一副太阳镜。”她会回答,“好的,请这边走。”然后你和她就向“目的地”走去——都迫切地去寻找你想要的东西。
这与你的学习过程非常相似。如果你随机选择了一本书,“只是看看”而不是寻找具体东西,那么你所得到的很可能是——一无所获。但是,如果你知道你想要什么,而你手头又有正确的书,那么你几乎肯定会获得你所想要的东西。你的缘由可能大不相同:阅读或学习是为了“找出更多信息”、“为了理解原因”和“为了找出方法”。一个好学生对于他所做的事情总有一个明确的目的或原因。
这就是奏效的方法。在开始学习之前,你这样告诉自己,“我想知道斯蒂芬•文森特•贝尼特为什么这样描写美国。我读这篇文章就是要找出原因。”或者“我要通读这篇文章,看看中世纪英格兰的生活到底是什么样子的。”由于你知道阅读或学习的原因,你就可以将这些信息与你的目的紧密联系,并更好地记住它。
阅读并不是一项独立的行为,期间至少两个重要过程同时发生。在阅读时,你能够迅速而又准确地理解内容,同时在对所读内容予以反应时也在表述自己的思想。你与作者进行一种精神对话。如果你口头表述你的想法的话,它们很可能是“是的,我同意,我的想法也是这样。”或是“嗯……,我以为这项纪录早就被打破了。我最好还是再查查日期。”或是“但是还要考虑一些其他的事实!”你并不只是坐在那里理解内容——你还在做其他的事情,而这些事情往往非常重要。
对所阅读的内容进行思考的附加过程包括评估这些内容、将其与已知信息相联系,并根据自身目的来进行应用。换句话说,一位好读者也是一位批判性的读者。正如你所发现的,批判性阅读的一部分就是区分事实与观点。事实可以通过证据来确认,而观点只是个人反应。
批判性阅读的还包括评判来源和进行准确推理。
Text 2
①If you live in a large city, you are quite familiar with some of the problems of noise, but because of some of its harmful effects, you may not be aware of the extent of its influence on human behavior. ②Although everyone more or less knows what noise is, i.e., it is sounds that one would rather not hear, it is perhaps best to define it more precisely for scientific purposes. ③One such definition is that noise is sounds that are unrelated to the task at hand. ④Thus stimuli that at one time might be considered relevant will at another time be considered noise, depending on what one is doing at the moment. ⑤In recent years there has been a great deal of interest in the effects of noise on human behavior, and concepts such as “noise pollution” have arisen, together with movements to reduce noise.
①Exposure to loud noises can definitely produce a partial or complete loss of hearing, depending on the intensity, duration, and frequency composition of the noise. ②Many jobs present noise hazards, such as working in factories and around jet aircraft, driving farm tractors, and working (or sitting) in music halls where rock bands are playing. ③In general, continuous exposure to sounds of over 80 decibels (a measure of the loudness of sound) can be considered dangerous. ④Decibel values correspond to various sounds. ⑤Sounds above about 85 decibels may, if exposure is for a sufficient period of time, produce significant hearing loss. ⑥Actual loss will depend upon the particular frequencies to which one is exposed, and whether the sound is continuous or intermittent.
Noise can have unexpected harmful effects on performance of certain kinds of tasks, for instance, if one is performing a watch keeping task that requires vigilance, in which he is responsible for detecting weak signals of some kind (e.g., watching a radar screen for the appearance of aircraft).
①Communicating with other people is unfavorably affected by noise. ②If you have ridden in the rear of a jet transport, you may have noticed that it was difficult to carry on a conversation at first, and that, eventually, you adjusted the loudness of your speech to compensate for the effect. ③The problem is noise.
一、词汇
1.extent n. 范围,程度                                        2.at hand在手边
3.stimulin(stimulus的复数形式)刺激        4.exposure n. (to sth) 暴露(在…下)
5.intensity n. 强度,强烈                                6.duration n. 持续
7.frequency n. 频繁,频率                                        8.hazard n. 危险,危害
9.decibel n. 分贝                                                10.measure n. 量度
11.correspond to相应于,符合于                   12.intermittent a. 间歇的,断断续续的
13.vigilance n. 警戒                                                14.detect v. 检测,发现
15.rear n. 后面,背后       
二、长难句
1. Thus stimuli that at one time might be considered relevant will at another time be considered noise, depending on what one is doing at the moment.
该句的主干是Thus stimuli will be considered noise,主语stimuli后接有that引导的定语从句做后置定语;谓语部分有介词短语at another time做时间状语。句末分词depending on …做条件状语。
翻译:因此,根据人们手头的工作,某些时候的刺激在另外一些时候就是噪音。
2. Sounds above about 85 decibels may, if exposure is for a sufficient period of time, produce significant hearing loss.
该句的主干是Sounds may produce significant hearing loss,介词短语above about 85 decibels做后置定语,修饰主语名词sounds。插入语部分为if条件句,做条件状语,修饰谓语动词。
翻译:如果呆在超过85分贝噪音环境中的时间足够长,将会造成严重的听力丧失。
3. Actual loss will depend upon the particular frequencies to which one is exposed, and whether the sound is continuous or intermittent.
该句的主干为Actual loss will depend upon the particular frequencies … and whether …,其中depend upon后接有and连接的并列名词结构做介词宾语。第一个名词frequencies后接有to which引导的定语从句做后置定语;第二个为whether引导的宾语从句。
翻译:实际的听力丧失程度要看噪音的具体频率和噪音是持续性的还是间歇性的。
4. Noise can have unexpected harmful effects on performance of certain kinds of tasks, for instance, if one is performing a watch keeping task that requires vigilance, in which he is responsible for detecting weak signals of some kind (e.g., watching a radar screen for the appearance of aircraft).
该句为主从复合句。主句为Noise can have unexpected harmful effects on performance of certain kinds of tasks,have effects on sth意为“对……有影响”。if引导条件从句,其主干为one is performing a watch keeping task,that引导的定语从句修饰a watch keeping task。该定语从句的主干为that (a watch keeping task) requires vigilance,in which引导的定语从句做后置定语,修饰名词vigilance。
翻译:在某些任务的工作过程中,噪声会造成意想不到的危害。例如,一个人正执行一件需要高度警惕的观察工作,负责检测某种弱信号(如,观察雷达屏幕上飞行器的出现)。
5. If you have ridden in the rear of a jet transport, you may have noticed that it was difficult to carry on a conversation at first, and that, eventually, you adjusted the loudness of your speech to compensate for the effect.
该句为主从复合句。句首为if引导的条件状语从句,句子主干为you may have noticed that …and that … ,其宾语由and连接的两个that引导的宾语从句构成。
翻译:如果你坐在喷气式飞机的后部,首先你会注意到进行谈话是多么困难,最终,你不得不提高音量来抵消噪音的影响。
三、文章结构分析
这篇文章主要探讨噪音对人类及其行为的有害影响。文章主题明确,层次清晰,总体结构为总分结构,可以分为两个部分。
第一部分为总(第一段):提出噪音现象,给出噪音定义,并指出人们开始关注噪音对人类行为的影响。
第二部分为分(第二、三和四段):论述噪音对人类及其行为的有害影响。第二段指出噪音会造成人类听力的部分或完全丧失。第三段指出噪音会对某些工作执行造成意想不到的危害。第四段指出噪音会对人际交流造成不良影响。
四、试题具体分析
15.        Noise differs from sound in that ________.        15.噪音与声音的不同之处在于噪音是________。
[A] it is sounds that interfere with the task being done        [A] 干扰人们工作的声音
[B] it is a special type of loud sound        [B] 一种特别类型的大音量的声音
[C] it is usually unavoidable in big cities        [C] 在大城市中通常难以避免
[D] it can be defined more precisely than the latter        [D] 其定义可以比声音的定义更加准确
【分析】本题所考查的知识点是:具体细节题。
众所周知,噪音是声音的一种。文章首段给出了噪音的两种定义,一种是人们的通俗定义,噪音是人们不想听到的声音;另一种是较为准确的科学定义,噪音是与当前任务无关的声音,即干扰人们工作的声音。[A]选项是第二种定义的同义改写,为正确项。
[B]选项以偏概全,音量大是噪音的特点之一,但并非噪音的唯一特点。[C]和[D]选项利用文中出现词语large city、define和precisely捏造无关干扰。
16.        One of the harmful effects of noise on human performance is that ________.        16. 噪音对人类工作的有害影响之一是________。
[A] it reduces one’s sensitivity        [A] 降低人们的敏感性
[B] it renders the victim helpless        [B] 使受害者感到无助
[C] it deprives one of the enjoyment of music        [C] 剥夺人们享受音乐的快乐
[D] it drowns out conversations at worksites        [D] 淹没人们在工作地点的对话
【分析】本题所考查的知识点是:具体细节题。
第二、三和四段论述噪音对人类的有害影响。第三段指出噪音会干扰某些任务的执行,该段以一项需要高度警惕的观察工作(如监测雷达屏幕上飞行器的出现)为例暗示噪音会分散观察者的注意力,即降低人们的敏感性,[A]选项正确。
[B]和[C]选项从文中无从推知。[D]选项利用第四段“噪音对人际交流产生不良影响”进行干扰,但文中指出人们会根据噪音音量来提高自己说话的音量,而不是对话完全被噪音淹没。
17.        The purpose of this passage is ________.        17. 这篇文章的目的是________。
[A] to define the effects of noise on human behavior        [A] 确定噪音对人类行为的影响
[B] to warn people of the danger of noise pollution        [B] 警告人们噪音污染的危险
[C] to give advice as to how to prevent hearing loss        [C] 提供如何避免听力丧失的建议
[D] to tell the difference between noise and sound        [D] 叙述噪音与声音之间的差异
【分析】本题所考查的知识点是:文章主旨题。
这篇文章采取总分结构探讨噪音对人类及其行为的影响。第一段为总,提出噪音现象以及人们对噪音对人类行为的影响的关注。第二、三和四段为分,论述噪音对人类行为的具体影响,包括造成人类听力部分或完全丧失、影响工作任务的执行、阻碍人际交流。[A]选项是文章内容的总体概括,为正确项。
[B]和[D]选项以偏概全,[B]仅能概括文章第二段部分内容,即噪音会造成听力丧失(噪音污染的危险之一);[D]仅提及第一段噪音定义的部分内容,两者都不能完全概括全篇内容。[C]选项无中生有,文章第二段提及噪音会造成听力丧失,但作者并未就此提出任何建议。
五、全文翻译
如果你居住在一个大城市,对噪音问题就再熟悉不过了,然而,因为关注它的一些有害影响,你可能没有意识到它对人们行为举止的影响程度。虽然每个人都或多或少知道噪音是什么(即人们不想听到的声音),但是最好是从科学目的角度来为其更准确地下定义。其中的一种定义是:噪音是与当前任务无关的声音。因此,根据人们手头的工作,某些时候的刺激在另外一些时候就是噪音。最近几年,人们对噪音对人类行为的影响产生极大兴趣,诸如“噪音污染”的概念也随之出现,同时出现的还有减少噪音的种种行动。
置身于嘈杂环境无疑能造成听力的部分或完全丧失,这要看噪声的强度、持续时间和频率构成。目前许多工作都存在噪音危害,如工作在工厂中或喷气机的周围、驾驶农场拖拉机、在演奏摇滚乐的音乐厅中工作(或仅仅身处其中)。一般来说,持续呆在超过80分贝(判断声音大小的度量)的噪音环境中被认为是危险的。分贝的大小和各种声音的大小一致。如果呆在超过85分贝噪音环境中的时间足够长,将会造成严重的听力丧失。实际的听力丧失程度要看噪音的具体频率和噪音是持续性的还是间歇性的。
在某些任务的工作过程中,噪声会造成意想不到的危害。例如,一个人正执行一件需要高度警惕的观察工作,负责检测某种弱信号(如,观察雷达屏幕上飞行器的出现)。
噪音对人际交流也会产生不良影响。如果你坐在喷气式飞机的后部,首先你会注意到进行谈话是多么困难,最终,你不得不提高音量来抵消噪音的影响。噪音就是问题的根源。

Text 3
①The traditional belief that a woman’s place is in the home and that a woman ought not to go out to work can hardly be reasonably maintained in present conditions. ②It is said that it is a woman’s task to care for the children, but families today tend to be small and with a year or two between children. ③Thus a woman’s whole period of childbearing may occur within five years. ④Furthermore, with compulsory education from the age of five or six her role as chief educator of her children soon ceases. ⑤Thus, even if we agree that a woman should stay at home to look after her children before they are of school age, for many women, this period would extend only for about ten years.
①It might be argued that the house-proud woman would still find plenty to do about the home. ②That may be so, but it is certainly no longer necessary for a woman to spend her whole life cooking, cleaning, mending and sewing. ③Washing machines take the drudgery out of laundry, the latest models being entirely automatic and able to wash and dry a large quantity of clothes in a few minutes. ④Refrigerators have made it possible to store food for long periods and many pre-cooked foods are obtainable in tins. ⑤Shopping, instead of being a daily task, can be completed in one day a week. ⑥The new man-made fibers are more hardwiring than natural fibers and greatly reduce mending, while good ready-made clothes are cheap and plentiful.
①Apart from women’s own happiness, the needs of the community must be considered. ②Modern society cannot do well without the contribution that women can make in professions and other kinds of work. ③There is a serious shortage of nurses and teachers, to mention only two of the occupations followed by women. ④It is extremely wasteful to give years of training at public expense only to have the qualified teacher or nurse marry after a year or two and be lost forever to her profession. ⑤The training, it is true, will help her in duties as a mother, but if she continued to w**rvice would be more widely useful. ⑥Many factories and shops, too, are largely staffed by women, many of them married. ⑦While here the question of training is not so important, industry and trade would be seriously short of staff if married women did not work.

一、词汇
1.maintain v. 维持,保养                                2.compulsory a. 义务的
3.cease v. 停止                                                4.drudgery n. 苦差事,苦工
5.laundry n. 要洗的衣服,洗衣                6.fiber n. 纤维

二、长难句
1. The traditional belief that a woman’s place is in the home and that a woman ought not to go out to work can hardly be reasonably maintained in present conditions.
该句主干为The traditional belief …can hardly be reasonably maintained,主语名词belief后接有两个that连接的从句做同位语。
翻译:传统观念认为女性属于家庭而非外出工作,但这一观念已经不再适用于当今情况。
2. Washing machines take the drudgery out of laundry, the latest models being entirely automatic and able to wash and dry a large quantity of clothes in a few minutes.
该句主干为Washing machines take the drudgery out of laundry,“名词the latest models +分词being entirely automatic and able to”构成的独立主格结构做结果状语。
翻译:洗衣机承担了洗衣这一苦差事,最新型的全自动洗衣机可以在几分钟之内清洗并甩干大量衣物。
3. It is extremely wasteful to give years of training at public expense only to have the qualified teacher or nurse marry after a year or two and be lost forever to her profession.
该句主干为It is extremely wasteful to,it为形式主语,不定式结构为真正的主语。不定式结构中又有不定式结构only to have the qualified teacher or nurse marry and be lost forever…做结果状语。
翻译:社会花费大量时间与财力培养合格教师或护士,而她们工作一两年之后便结婚,从此便不再工作,这是多大的浪费啊!

三、文章结构分析
这篇文章探讨女性位置的归属。作者从传统观念切入,从女性照顾和教育孩子的职责、承担家庭事务和参与社会工作三个角度进行分析,指出女性除了照顾家庭之外还应该在社会上工作,即女性不单属于家庭,也属于社会。
第一段开门见山,提出主题:女性的归属。传统观念认为女性属于家庭,天职是照顾孩子。随后作者从职责角度分析女性归属不再仅限于家庭,原因在于:一是家庭规模变小,二是女性生育期限减小,三是女性教育孩子时间缩短。
第二段从家庭角度进行分析:现代家庭设备(家用电器、冷冻食品、人造纤维、成装等)的发展大大减轻女性在家庭中的负担与劳动量。
第三段从社会角度进行分析:现代社会的良好运行需要女性的贡献。以护士与教师两大职业以及工业和贸易中女性的重要性为例指出女性对社会发展不可或缺。

四、试题具体分析

18.        The author holds that ________.        18.作者认为________。
[A] the right place for all women, married or otherwise, is the home, not elsewhere        [A] 不论已婚与否,所有女性的正确位置都属于家庭而非其他地方
[B] all married women should have some occupation outside the home        [B] 所有已婚女性都应该在家庭之外有一份职业
[C] a married woman should give first priority to her duties as a mother        [C] 已婚女性应当以母亲的责任为重
[D] it is desirable for uneducated married women to stay at home and take care of the family        [D] 没有接受教育的已婚女性应当留在家中照顾家庭
【分析】本题所考查的知识点是:作者观点题。
文章第一段首句指出传统观念认为女性属于家庭而不应外出工作,但这一观念已经不再适用于当今社会。随后作者从女性照顾和教育孩子的职责、承担家庭事务和参与社会工作三个角度展开分析论述,说明女性的归属不再仅限于家庭,她们应当外出工作,为社会做出自己的贡献,而社会也需要她们的贡献。[B]选项正确。
[A]、[C]和[D]选项反向干扰,这三者都是传统观念,而不是作者的观点。
19.        A house-proud woman ________.        19.以家庭为重的女性________。
[A] would devote her whole life to her family        [A] 把她的整个生活都奉献给家庭
[B] would take her own happiness and that of her family as her chief concern        [B] 把自己与其家庭的幸福放在首位
[C] would still need some special training at public expense to help her in her duties as a housewife        [C] 还需要社会支付费用来接受特殊培训以实现其作为家庭主妇的责任
[D] would take full advantage of modern household appliances        [D] 应当充分利用现代家庭设备
【分析】本题所考查的知识点是:具体细节题。
由题干关键词“house-proud woman”定位到文章第二段。第二段①句指出有些人认为以家庭为重的女性在家中总有很多事情可做。但接下来作者指出,现代家庭设备(洗衣机、电冰箱、罐装的冷冻食品、简便购物、人造纤维和成装)的发展大大减轻了女性在家庭中的劳动量,而女性应该充分利用这些条件,[D]选项正确。
[A]选项常识干扰,这属于传统观念,并非文章中作者所论述的观点。[B]和[C]选项利用文中出现词语women’s own happiness、training at public expense和help her in duties as a mother进行干扰,[B]选项从文中无从推知,[C]选项是作者反对的观念,作者认为女性应当利用自己所接受的培训为社会做出贡献,而非仅为实现家庭角色。
20.        According to the author, modern society ________.        20.作者认为现代社会________。
[A] can operate just as well even without women participation        [A] 即使没有女性参与其中也能很好地运行
[B] has been greatly hampered in its development by the shortage of women nurses and women teachers        [B] 由于缺乏女性护士与教师而大大阻碍了其发展
[C] cannot operate properly without the contribution of women        [C] 没有女性的贡献而无法良好运行
[D] will be seriously affected by the continuing shortage of working women in heavy industries and international trade        [D] 将继续受到重工业与国际贸易中女性工作人员短缺的严重影响
【分析】本题所考查的知识点是:作者观点题。
第三段②句明确指出,如果没有女性在各个职业领域所做出的贡献,现代社会将无法良好运行,[C]选项正确。
[A]选项反向干扰。[B]选项以偏概全,第三段仅是利用护士与教师两大职业中女性的重要性说明女性对于社会发展不可或缺。 [D]选项过度引申,首先文中提到的是工业与贸易两大领域,并未具体到重工业与国际贸易;其次最后一段末句所提出的是一种假设的现象,而并非事实。

五、全文翻译
传统观念认为女性属于家庭而非外出工作,但这一观念已经不再适用于当今情况。人们认为照顾孩子是女性的天职,但是如今的家庭规模变小,孩子之间的年龄仅相差一两岁,这样女性生育孩子的整个期限也不过五年。此外,由于孩子在五六岁时开始接受义务教育,女性作为其子女主要教育者的角色也随之终止。因此,即使我们都赞同女性在孩子入学之前应当留在家中照顾他们,这段时间最长也不过十年。
有人可以辩解说,以家庭为重的女性在家庭中总有很多事情要做。这或许是事实,但是很显然,女性没必要花一辈子时间来做饭、打扫和缝缝补补。洗衣机承担了洗衣这一苦差事,最新型的全自动洗衣机可以在几分钟之内清洗并甩干大量衣物。电冰箱可以长时间存储食物,并且现在很多冷冻食物都是罐装,方便获取。购物已经不是每日必做的事情,你可以在一天之内完成一周的采购。新型的人造纤维比自然纤维更耐穿,这大大减少了缝缝补补的需要,而成装既价格便宜又货源充足。
除了女性本身的幸福之外,社会的需要也必须纳入考虑之中。如果没有女性在职业领域和其他各种工作中的贡献,现代社会无法良好运行。护士与教师领域人才短缺,而这只是两种女性主导的职业。社会花费大量时间与财力培养合格教师或护士,而她们工作一两年之后便结婚,从此便不再工作,这是多大的浪费啊!确实,这种培训会帮助她们做一个更好的妈妈,但是如果她们继续工作,她们的服务将为社会带来更多的利益。很多工厂与商店的工作人员也是女性,大多数都是已婚者。尽管培训在这种情况下不是主要问题,但是如果已婚女性不再工作的话,工业和贸易就会遭遇人员短缺的窘境。


Section III        English-Chinese Translation
Translate the following passage into Chinese. Only the underlined sentences are to be translated. (20 points)

Seated behind the front desk at a New York firm, the receptionist was efficient.
Stylishly dressed, the firm’s newest employee had a pleasant telephone voice and a natural charm that put clients at ease. The company was pleased: (21) Clearly, this was a person who took considerable pride in personal appearance. David King, the receptionist, is unusual, but by no means unique. (22) Just as all truck drivers and construction workers are no longer necessarily men, all secretaries and receptionists are no longer automatically women. The number of men in women-dominated fields is still small and they haven’t attracted the attention that has often followed women advancing into male-dominated fields, but men are moving into more and more jobs that have traditionally been held by women.
Strictly speaking, the phenomenon is not new. For the past several decades, men have been quietly entering fields such as nursing, social work and elementary education. But today no job seems off-limits. Men serve coffee in offices and meals on airplanes. (23) These changes are helping to influence some of the long-standing traditions about the types of work men and women can do -- but they also produce some undeniable problems for the men who are entering those fields formerly dominated by women.
What kinds of men venture into these so-called “women’s fields”? All kinds. (24) “I don’t know of any definite answers I’d be comfortable with,” explains Joseph Pleck, Ph.D., of the Wellesley College Centre for Research on Women.
Sam Ormont, for example, a thirty-year-old nurse at a Boston hospital, went into nursing because the army had trained him as a medical worker. (25) “I found that work very interesting.” he recalled, “and when I got out of the service it just seemed natural for me to go into something medical. I wasn’t really interested in becoming a doctor.” Thirty-five-year-old David King, an out-of-work actor, found a job as a receptionist because he was having trouble landing roles in Broadway plays and he needed to pay the rent.
(26) In other words, men enter “female” jobs out of the same consideration for personal interest and economic necessity that motivates anyone looking for work. But similarities often end there. Men in female-dominated jobs are conspicuous. As a group, their work histories differ in most respects from those of their female colleagues, and they are frequently treated differently by the people with whom they are in professional contact.
The question naturally arises: Why are there still approximately ninety-nine female secretaries for every one male? There is also a more serious issue. Most men don’t want to be receptionists, nurses, secretaries or sewing workers. Put simply, these are not generally considered very masculine jobs. (27) To choose such a line of work is to invite ridicule.
“There was kidding in the beginning,” recalls Ormont. “Kids coming from school ask what I am, and when I say ‘A nurse,’ they laugh at me. I just smile and say, ‘You know, there are female doctors, too.’”
Still, there are encouraging signs. Years ago, male grade school teachers were as rare as male nurses. Today more than one elementary school teacher in six is male.
(28) Can we anticipate a day when secretaries will be an even mix of men and women — or when the mention of a male nurse will no longer raise eyebrows? It’s probably coming -- but not very soon.
一、试题结构分析
本文第一至三段指出男性正在从事越来越多传统上由女性承担的工作,而且这些变化影响着长期存在的有关男性和女性工作的传统观念。第四至六段分析指出男性从事女性工作的动机和其他找工作的动机一样:出于个人的兴趣或经济上需要的考虑。第七、八段指出问题仍然存在:从事传统女性工作的男性仍然很少,而且会惹人笑话。第九段以小学教师和男护士人数增加为例说明仍然有令人鼓舞的迹象,并展望未来从事传统女性职业的男性会和女性一样多。

二、试题具体解析
21.        本题考核的知识点是:定语从句。
【句子结构】该句的主干为this was a person,who引导的定语从句做后置定语,修饰person。副词clearly为插入语,用来表示说话者对句子所表达的意思的态度。
【词义确定】take pride in意为“以...为豪”。considerable意为“相当的,可观的”。
【翻译】显然,他是个对自己的仪表感到相当自豪的人。
22. 本题考核的知识点是:方式状语从句。
【句子结构】该句为主从复合句,句首为Just as引导的方式状语从句。
【词义确定】necessarily意为“必然,必定”。automatically意为“自动地”。
【翻译】正像卡车司机和建筑工人再没必要都是男的一样,所有秘书和接待员再也不一定都是女的。
23. 本题考核的知识点是:并列分句,定语从句。
【句子结构】 该句由but连接的两个并列分句构成。前一分句的主干为These changes are helping to influence some of the long-standing traditions,名词短语the types of work后接有省略关系代词的定语从句(that) men and women can do。后一分句的主干为they also produce some undeniable problems for the men,who引导的定语从句做后置定语,修饰名词men。
【词义确定】long-standing意为“长期存在的”。undeniable意为“不可否认的”。
【翻译】这些变化正影响着长期存在的传统观念中关于男女各可以干哪几类工作的看法,但这对于进入原先以妇女为主的那些的男人来说,无疑也带来一些问题。
24. 本题考核的知识点是:定语从句。
【句子结构】该句的主干为I don’t know of any definite answers,名词answers后接有省略关系代词的定语从句(that) I’d be comfortable with。
【词义确定】know of意为“知道,听说”。
【翻译】我还没听说过有任何使我感到满意的确切答案。
25. 本题考核的知识点是:宾语从句,时间状语从句。
【句子结构】该句是主从复合句,宾语从句由直接引语构成。该从句是and连接的两个并列分句:I found that work very interesting and it just seemed natural for me to … 。第二个分句中含有when引导的时间状语从句。
【词义确定】out of the service意为“退职(役)”。go into意为“从事”。
【翻译】他回忆说:“我觉得那种工作十分有趣,当我退役时,对我来说,去干某种医务工作,似乎是极其自然的。
26. 本题考核的知识点是:介词短语表原因,定语从句
【句子结构】该句主干为men enter “female” jobs,介词短语out of the same consideration for personal interest and economic necessity …做状语,表示“出于……的原因”。that引导的定语从句做后置定语,修饰名词短语personal interest and economic necessity。
【词义确定】necessity意为“需要,必需品,必然”。motivate意为“激发,给予动机”。
【翻译】换句话说,男人干起了“女人干的”工作,其动机是同任何找工作干的人一样,既出于个人的兴趣,也出于经济上需要的考虑。
27. 本题考核的知识点是:并列分句。
【句子结构】该句的主语和表语都是不定式构成。
【词义确定】line of work意为“职业”。invite意为“招致(尤指坏事)”。ridicule意为“嘲笑,愚弄”。
【翻译】选定这一类工作是会惹人笑话的。
28. 本题考核的知识点是:并列分句。
【句子结构】该句的主干为Can we anticipate a day,两个when引导的定语从句做后置定语,修饰名词a day,具体说明什么样的一天。
【词义确定】mix意为“混合”。raise eyebrows意为“扬起眉毛;怀疑、吃惊的表情”。
【翻译】我们是否能预见到这么一天:那时当秘书的男女各占一半或有人提到某个男人当护士时,人们不会再感到吃惊?

三、全文翻译
坐在一家纽约公司前台后面的接待员非常有效率。
这家公司穿着入时的新职员接电话时有着悦耳的声音和自然的魅力,这使客户感到自在。公司非常满意:(21)显然,他是个对自己的仪表感到相当自豪的人。接待员大卫•金不同寻常,但绝非独特。(22)正像卡车司机和建筑工人再没必要都是男的一样,所有秘书和接待员再也不一定都是女的。在以女性为主导的领域男性的数量仍然很少,他们也没有像进入以男性为主的领域的女性那样常常得到关注。但是男性正在从事越来越多传统上由女性承担的工作。
严格来讲,这不是新现象。过去几十年中,男性已经悄悄地进入护理、社会工作和基础教育等领域。但是,如今没有什么工作似乎是超出范围的。男性也在办公室准备咖啡、在飞机上准备食物。(23)这些变化正影响着长期存在的传统观念中关于男女各可以干哪几类工作的看法,但这对于进入原先以妇女为主的那些的男人来说,无疑也带来一些问题。
什么样的男性冒险进入这些所谓的“女性领域”呢?各种各样的男性。(24)“我还没听说过有任何使我感到满意的确切答案”,威尔斯利大学女性研究中心的约瑟芬•普莱克博士解释说。
比如,在一家波士顿医院工作的30岁护士萨姆•沃蒙特从事护理工作,因为军队曾训练他成为医务工作者。(25)他回忆说:“我觉得那种工作十分有趣,当我退役时,对我来说,去干某种医务工作,似乎是极其自然的。我对于成为医生并不真的感兴趣。”三十五岁的大卫•金是一位失业的演员,他找了一份接待员的工作,因为他很难在百老汇得到合适的角色,却需要支付房租。
(26)换句话说,男人干起了“女人干的”工作,其动机是同任何找工作干的人一样,既出于个人的兴趣,也出于经济上需要的考虑。但是相似性也仅此而已。承担女性主导的工作的男性是很明显的。他们这个群体的工作历史在大部分方面与其女性同事不同。他们经常从那些在职业上有接触的人那里得到不同的待遇。
问题自然产生了:为什么仍然有99个女秘书,而只有1个男秘书?还有一个更严重的问题。大部分男性不想成为接待员、护士、秘书或缝纫工。简单的说,这些工作通常不被认为是男性化的工作。(27)选定这一类工作是会惹人笑话的。
    沃蒙特回忆说:“最初只是开玩笑。从学校来的孩子们问我是谁,当我说“是护士”,他们都嘲笑我。我只是笑着说“知道吗,也有女医生”。
但是仍然令人鼓舞的迹象。多年前,小学教师和男护士一样稀有。如今,六个小学老师中至少有一个是男性。(28)我们是否能预见到这么一天:那时当秘书的男女各占一半或有人提到某个男人当护士时,人们不会再感到吃惊?



1989年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题

Section I Close Test

For each numbered blank in the following passage there are four choices labeled [A], [B], [C] and [D]. Choose the best one and put your choice in the ANSWER SHEET. Read the whole passage before making your choice. (10 points)

①One day drought may be a thing of the past at least in coastal cities. ②Vast areas of desert throughout the world may for the first time   1   and provide millions of hectares of land where now nothing grows.
③By the end of this century this may not be mere   2  . ④Scientists are already looking into the possibility of using some of the available ice in the Arctic and Antarctic. ⑤In these regions there are vast ice-caps formed by snow that has fallen over the past 50,000 years. ⑥Layer   3   layer of deep snow means that, when melted, the snow water would be pure, not salty as sea-ice would be. ⑦There is so much   4   pure water here that it would need only a fraction of it to turn much of the desert or poorly irrigated parts of the world into rich farmland. ⑧And what useful packages it would come in! ⑨It should be possible to cut off a bit of ice and transport it! ⑩Alternatively perhaps a passing iceberg could be   5  . ○11They are always breaking away from the main caps and floating around, pushed by currents, until they eventually melt and are wasted.
○12Many icebergs are, of course, far too small to be towed   6   distance, and would melt before they reached a country that needed them anywhere. ○13It would be necessary to locate one that was   7   and that was big enough to provide a good supply of ice when it reached us. ○14Engineers think that an iceberg up to seven miles long and one and a half miles wide could be transported if the tug pulling it was as big as a supertanker! ○15Even then they would cover only twenty miles every day. ○16However,  8   the iceberg was at its destination, more that 7,000 million cubic metres of water could be taken from it! ○17That would probably be more than enough for any medium-sized city even in the hottest summer! ○18But no doubt a use could be found for it. ○19  9  , scientist say, there would not be too much wastage in such a journey. ○20The larger the iceberg, the slower it melts, even if it is towed through the tropics. ○21This is because when the sun has a bigger area to warm   10  , less heat actually gets into the iceberg. ○22The vast frozen centre would be unaffected. [394 words]
1. [A] come to life                                                [B] come into existence       
[C] come into activity                                        [D] come round
2. [A] speculation        [B] imagination                [C] computation                [D] expectation
3. [A] above                [B] of                        [C] upon                                [D] over
4. [A] essential                [B] potential                [C] claimable                        [D] obtainable
5. [A] seized                [B] snatched                [C] grabbed                        [D] captured
6. [A] much                [B] any                        [C] some                                [D] certain
7. [A] manageable        [B] manipulative        [C] operable                        [D] controllable
8. [A] after                [B] while                        [C] since                                [D] once
9. [A] Apparently        [B] Noticeably                [C] Distinctly                        [D] Notably
10.[A] round                [B] over                        [C] up                                [D] through

一、文章结构分析
本文介绍了如何利用南北极的冰山解决全球干旱问题。
第一段是文章的引子部分,提出干旱问题将得到解决,为下文介绍冰山的利用做铺垫。
第二段提出本文要介绍的主要内容:利用冰山解决干旱问题。③句是过渡句,从第一段的总体设想过渡到第二段对具体措施的介绍。
第三段承接第二段,指出了利用冰山的具体实施中遇到的问题及对策。

二、试题具体分析
1.[A]come to life变得更有趣,焕发生机[B]come into existence开始存在,成立
[C]come into activity变得活跃       [D]come round恢复知觉;苏醒
本题考核的知识点是:上下文语义+动词短语辨析
[快速解题] 空格处填入的动词短语的主语是areas of desert,沙漠不能“变得活跃”或“恢复知觉”,首先排除[C]和[D]。由①句中干旱将成为历史,可以推断出沙漠地区将拥有水资源,下文也说沙漠将提供数百万顷的土地种植作物,因此come to life符合文意,在文中意为“沙漠地区将焕发生机”。come into existence“沙漠开始存在”不符合上下文语义,应排除。
[篇章分析]①②句是承接关系,介绍了与文章主题相关的背景,即干旱问题将得到解决。
②句的主干部分是Vast areas of desert may come to life … and provide…,其中还包含一个where引导的定语从句,修饰land。
[空格设置]本题考查了短语动词。例句:The match finally come to life in the second half.比赛在下半场终于精彩起来。
[干扰项设置]其他项利用come的常用搭配设置干扰。例句:Pakistan came into existence as an independent country after the war.巴基斯坦在战后就以一个独立的国家存在了。Your mother hasn’t yet come round.你的母亲还没有苏醒过来。
2.[A] speculation推测,推断                        [B] imagination想象力,想象
[C] computation计算                      [D] expectation预料,期望
本题考核的知识点是:上下文语义+名词辨析
[快速解题]空格所在部分this may not be mere  2  中,this指代第一段提出的“沙漠变良田”。文中没有涉及到计算,首先排除computation。此外,由下文的分析可知,这一观点不是出于人们主观的想象imagination或是期望expectation,而是建立在已知事物的基础之上,因此正确选项为[A]。speculation代入文中意为“到本世纪末,这也许不仅仅是一种推测。”
[篇章分析]③句是第二段的首句,由上文谈干旱问题过渡到对文章话题(利用冰川)的具体展开。this指代上文②句的内容,实现语段的衔接。③句也是第二段的主题句,提出了该段要论述的内容:让干旱成为历史的可行性,该段围绕这句话展开叙述。④句给出了③句观点的原因,句中already与③句not be mere speculation呼应。
[空格设置]此题难度较大,既需要考生理解speculation的词义,还要根据上下文作出判断。例句:His private life is the subject of much speculation.他的私生活引起诸多猜测。
[干扰项设置]其他项与speculation一样,都是由动词加词缀-tion构成的名词。其中还利用imagination与expectation这两个同样表示思维活动的名词设置干扰。例句:He’s got no imagination.他缺乏想象力。She did a rough calculation.她做了一个粗略的计算。I applied for the post more in hope than expectation.我申请这个职位是希望多于期待。
3. [A] above                        [B] of                        [C] upon                        [D] over
本题考核的知识点是:介词用法
[快速解题]空格所在部分为Layer  3  layer of deep snow,空格处填入的介词应该体现出积雪一层又一层的堆积,of没有这个用法,首先排除。其他三项都有表示“在…上面”的意思。但是over表示“悬在…上”,above只是泛指位置的上下关系,只有upon强调“在上面并且相互接触“,符合文中积雪的特点,所以正确答案为[C]upon。
[篇章分析] ⑤⑥句为该段的第一个层次,通过介绍冰帽成因证实了措施的可行性。⑥句的结构较为复杂,主语部分是Layer upon layer of deep snow,谓语动词means表示“意味着……”,宾语是that引导的从句。在这个宾语从句中又嵌套有一个when引导的条件状语从句。
[空格设置]本题考查常用介词upon的含义和用法。upon在含义和用法上等于on,对这一类常用介词考生要在理解上下文的基础上作出正确判断。
[干扰项设置]其他项都是常用介词,特别利用above与over两个同样表示方位关系的介词设置干扰。above与over表示“在…上面”时有所区别,above泛指“在(或向)…上面”,如:We were flying above the clouds.我们在云层上面飞行。over强调“悬在…上面”,如:There was a lamp hanging over the table.桌子上方吊着一盏灯。
4. [A] essential极其重要的;本质的                [B] potential潜在的,可能的
[C] claimable(法律)可要求的                [D] obtainable可得到的
本题考核的知识点是:上下文语义+形容词辨析
[快速解题]空格处填入的形容词作定语,修饰pure water,意为“…的纯净水”。claimable显然不能修饰water,首先排除。空格所在⑦句的含义是“这将产生大量…纯净水,只需要一小部分就能把世界上大量的沙漠和灌溉不足的地区变成肥沃的耕地”,由此可知此句强调的是水的数量多而未涉及到其重要性,因此排除essential。obtainable通常不用在名词前作定语,而且根据上下文语义,这里谈论的是“积雪融化时将产生的水”,强调的是一种潜在可能性,因此potential符合文意。
[篇章结构]⑦句至⑧句是该段的第二个层次,介绍了这一措施带来的效益。⑦句的结构比较复杂,主干是there be句型,含有一个由so…that引导的结果状语从句。从句的主干为it would need only a fraction of it,其中第一个it为形式主语,真正主语是后面的to turn…不定式短语,第二个it指代pure water。
[空格设置]本题在考查形容词辨析的同时,也考查了考生对上下文的理解。例句:First we need to identify actual and potential problems.首先,我们需要弄清实际的问题和潜在的问题。
[干扰项设置]其他项都是常用形容词,其中obtainable干扰性较强,需要考生在理解词义的基础上掌握词的具体用法,才能排除。例句如:Experience is essential for this job.对于这个工作,经验是非常重要的。The essential difference between Sara and me is our attitude to money.我与萨拉的根本区别在于我们对金钱的态度。acquisition of claimable assets arising from loans债权资产的取得;Full details are obtainable from any post office.详情可至任何邮局索取。
5. [A] seized捉住,占领                                [B] snatched一把抓起,夺取
[C] grabbed抓住,攫取                                [D] captured俘获,捕获
本题考核的知识点是:动词辨析
[快速解题] 四个选项均有“抓住”的含义,但是用法各不相同。seize与snatch强调“抢夺”,grab强调“突然紧紧地抓住”,capture侧重指“捕获移动中的物体”。空格处填入的动词的宾语是a passing iceberg,意为“…移动的冰山”,只有capture符合本题的用法,代入文中意为:移动的冰山将有可能被“捕获”。
[篇章分析] ⑨至○11句是该段的第三个层次,具体介绍了获得冰川的途径。⑨⑩句是选择关系,介绍了获取南北极冰川的两种形式,alternatively表现了这种选择关系。⑩○11句解说关系,○11句解释了○10句提出的冰山可以被“捕获”的原因。
[空格设置] 动词用法辨析是知识运用的常考点,capture的含义比较简单,本题主要考查其与近义词在用法上的辨析。
[干扰项设置]其他项利用表示“抓住”的动词对capture构成近义干扰。例句:She tried to seize the gun from him.她试图夺他的枪。The raiders snatched $100 from the cash register.劫匪从现金出纳机里抢走了100元。She grabbed the child’s hand and ran.她抓住孩子的手就跑。
6. [A] much                [B] any                        [C] some                        [D] certain
本题考核的知识点是:形容词用法辨析
[快速解题]在不同情况下,四个选项都可与distance搭配。空格所在句子的含义是“许多冰山体积太小而不能被拖运…距离”,显然,some和certain与distance搭配后表达的“一段距离”和“特定距离”不符合文意,首先排除。much修饰distance表示距离远时常与how连用或用于否定句,在文中不合适。只有any表示的“任何距离”符合句子语法和前后语义关系的搭配,为正确选项。
[篇章分析]○12句是过渡句,将文章转入到第三段对利用冰川时存在问题的介绍。○12句先提出在运输冰山的过程中会遇到问题:许多冰山由于体积小在运抵目的地前就融化了。下文围绕如何解决这一问题展开介绍。
[空格设置]本题考查了一类特殊的形容词——限定词的用法。any的用法很丰富,考生要在具体语境中加以理解。
[干扰项设置]其他项利用其他常用限定词much和some以及一个近义形容词certain对any形成干扰。限定词虽然不是知识运用考核的重点,但是许多限定词对正确理解上下文非常重要,考生应熟练掌握。
7. [A] manageable可操纵的,易于处理的
[B] manipulative(人)善于操纵的,会控制的
[C] operable运作的,可使用的
[D] controllable可控制的
本题考核的知识点是:形容词辨析
[快速解题]空格所在部分为one that was  7  ,空格处填入的形容词修饰one,即上文提到的iceberg,manipulative只能指人,首先排除。operable与iceberg搭配意为“可使用的冰山”不符合文意。而根据常识,iceberg目前还不能被人类“控制”,因此排除controllable。只有manageable符合文意,代入文中意为“易于处理的冰山”。
[篇章分析]○12与○13—○15句是承接关系,○12句指出存在的问题,○13—○15句提出解决方法:选择易于处理且体积足够大的冰山运输。○13句句首的It是形式主语,真实主语是to locate…,句中包含两个that引导的定语从句,在第二个that定于从句中又嵌套了when引导的时间状语从句。
[空格设置]manageable是核心词manage+-able形容词后缀构成的形容词。例句:Using conditioner regularly to make your hair soft and manageable.经常使用护发素来使你的头发柔软而且易于梳理。
[干扰项设置]其他项都是核心动词+形容词后缀构成的复杂形容词。例句:He is extremely manipulative.他这个人很会摆布人。When will the single currency be operable? 什么时候单一货币制可以实行?Cooking with gas is fast, controllable and clean.用燃气做饭速度快、调节方便,而且干净。
8.[A] after在…以后                        [B] while在…期间
[C] since从…以后                        [D] once一…就;一旦
本题考核的知识点是:句内逻辑关系
[快速解题]解答此题的关键是判断空格处填入的连词所连接的两部分之间是什么关系。the iceberg was at its destination 与more that 7,000 million cubic metres of water could be taken from it显然不是单纯的时间关系,从句应该是实现的条件。四个选项中只有once引导条件状语从句,意为“一旦”,代入文中意为“一旦这座冰山到达了目的地,它将提供超过70亿立方米的水”,符合文意。
[篇章分析]○16至○18句以however表明与上文的转折,指出利用冰川的必要性:(尽管运输困难,但)一旦成功则会带来巨大效益。
[空格设置]逻辑关系在知识运用中占据着越来越重要的位置,一些表示逻辑关系的连词需要考生着重掌握。
[干扰项设置]其他项利用其他表示逻辑关系的连词设置干扰,考生要正确理解上下文和句子内部逻辑关系排除干扰。
9.[A] Apparently据…所知,显然                        [B] Noticeably显著地,显而易见地
[C] Distinctly清晰地,明显地                        [D] Notably尤其,非常
本题考核的知识点是:上下文逻辑关系+副词辨析
[快速解题]空格在句首,填入的副词做整个句子的状语,该句表示“  9  ,在这样的运输途中损耗不是很大”。句中scientist say是插入部分,表明这是科学家的观点,而科学家正是根据下文○21○22句的科学原理得出得出了这样的观点。apparently表示according to what you have heard or read; according to the way sth appears“根据已经存在的情况可知”,它恰当地说明了得出观点有依据,符合文意。句中没有涉及“强调”的意思,排除notably。noticeable和distinctly也含有“明显”的意思,但是强调“清晰明显地看到或听到”,文中得出的结论显然不是“看到”或“听到”的,因此排除。
[篇章分析] ○19句至○20句分析了上文(○13—○15句)提出的选择体积足够大的冰山来运输的原因:在运输途中不会产生大量损失。段末两句进一步解释不会有大量损失的原因。
○20句包含一个even if 引导的让步状语从句,句中the larger与the slower形成对照。
[空格设置]本题考查了副词apparently的用法,需要考生理解上下文语义作出判断。例句:Apparently they are getting divorced soon.看样子,他们很快就要离婚。
[干扰项设置]其他项利用近义副词设置干扰。例句:It was noticeably that none of the family were present.很明显这一家没有人在场。I distinctly heard someone calling me.我清楚地听到有人叫我。The house had many drawbacks, most notably its location and price.这房子有很多缺陷,尤其是它的地点和价格。
10. [A] round                        [B] over                        [C] up                [D] through
本题考核的知识点是:上下文语义+副词搭配
[快速解题]空格处填入的介词与动词warm搭配,在has a bigger area to warm  10  结构中构成不定式短语后置修饰area,与area存在逻辑上的动宾关系。因此解答此题的关键是判断那个介词能与warm搭配,并且可接area作宾语符合文中语义。不存在warm round与warm through的搭配,首先排除[A和D]。warm over意为“重新加温,热(已经烧熟的食物)”,显然不能接area作宾语,排除。warm up意为“(使)温暖,变暖和”,代入文中意为“使一个更大的区域升温”,文意通顺,因此正确答案为[C]up。
[篇章分析]○21句主语this指代○20句整句内容,because引导的原因状语从句即解释了○20句中的现象。这个原因状语从句中又嵌套一个when引导的时间状语从句。bigger与less的反义对照和○20句中的larger与slower形成呼应。
[空格设置]动词与副词的搭配也是知识运用的常规考点。up的含义和用法很丰富,需要考生在理解上下文的基础上作出判断。
[干扰项设置]其他项也都是常与动词搭配的副词,其含义根据所搭配动词的不同而不同,需要在具体语境中加以辨析。

三、全文翻译
有一天,干旱有可能成为历史,特别是在沿海城市。遍及全世界的广大沙漠地区有可能首次焕发生机,把数百万公顷的当前寸草不生的土地变成田地。
到本世纪末,这将也许不仅仅是一种推测。科学家们已经在对利用南北极一些可用冰川的可能性进行研究。这些地区存在着大量冰帽,这些冰帽是由过去5万年来的降雪形成的。一层又一层的厚厚积雪意味着当其融化时,雪水将是纯净的,而不像海水结成的冰那样咸。这将产生大量潜在纯净水,只需要一小部分就能把世界上大量的沙漠和灌溉不足的地区变成肥沃的耕地。这将提供多么有益的一揽子计划啊!切割并运输冰块将成为可能,或者一座移动的冰山将有可能被“捕获”。它们(移动冰山)常常从主体冰山中分离出来,并在水流的推动下到处漂浮,直到它们最终融化并浪费掉。
当然,许多冰山体积太小而不能被拖运到任何距离,而且在到达需要它们的国家之前就可能融化掉了。选择易于处理并且体积足够大的冰山,以便使其到达我们身边时仍能提供充足的供应,这是很有必要的。工程师们认为一座7英里长1.5英里宽的冰山需要一艘超大型油轮那么大的拖船才能拖动它。尽管那样它们一天才能行驶20英里。然而,一旦这座冰山到达了目的地,它将提供超过70亿立方米的水。那对任何一座中等城市来说大概都绰绰有余,即使是在最为炎热的夏天。但是毫无疑问,人们会为这些水找到利用方法。科学家表明,在这样的运输途中,损耗显然不是很大。冰山越大融化的越慢,即使它被拖运穿过热带地区。这是因为当太阳需要给一个更大的区域升温时,冰山吸收的热量就会减少。巨大的结冰中心将不会受到影响。

Section II        Reading Comprehension

Each of the two passages below is followed by five questions. For each question there are four answers. Read the passages carefully and choose the best answer to each of the questions. Put your choice in the brackets on the left. (10 points)

Text 1
A scientist once said: “I have concluded that the earth is being visited by intelligently controlled vehicles from outer space.”
If we take this as a reasonable explanation for UFOs (unidentified flying objects), questions immediately come up.
“Why don’t they get in touch with us, then? Why don’t they land right on the White House lawn and declare themselves?” people asked.
In reply, scientists say that, while this may be what we want, it may not necessarily be what they want.
“The most likely explanation, it seems to me,” said Dr. Mead, “is that they are simply watching what we are up to -- that responsible society outside our solar system is keeping an eye on us to see that we don’t set in motion a chain reaction that might have unexpected effects for outside our solar system.”
Opinions from other scientists might go like this: “Why should they want to get in touch with us? We may feel we’re more important than we really are! They may want to observe us only and not interfere with the development of our civilization. They may not care if we see them but they also may not care to say ‘hello’.”
①Some scientists have also suggested that Earth is a kind of zoo or wildlife reserve. ②Just as we set aside wilderness areas and wildlife reserves to allow animals and growing things to develop naturally while we observe them, so perhaps Earth was set aside ages ago for the same purpose.
①Are we being observed by intelligent beings from other civilizations in the universe? ②Are they watching our progress in space travel? ③Do we live in a gigantic “zoo” observed by our “keepers,” but having no communication with them?
①Never before in our history have we had to confront ideas like these. ②The simple fact is that we, who have always regarded ourselves as supreme in the universe, may not be so. ③Now we have to recognize that, among the stars in the heavens, there may very well be worlds inhabited by beings who are to us as we are to ants.

一、词汇
1.conclude v. 作结论,推断
2.vehicle n. 交通工具
3.be up to sth= be doing sth正在做
4.keep an eye on sb监视某人
5.set in motion使某物运转
6.reserve n. 贮存,预备舍
7.set aside 保留
8.supreme a. 最高的
9.inhabit v. 居住于,占据
二、长难句
1. The most likely explanation, it seems to me,” said Dr. Mead, “is that they are simply watching what we are up to -- that responsible society outside our solar system is keeping an eye on us to see that we don’t set in motion a chain reaction that might have unexpected effects for outside our solar system.
该句的宾语由直接引语构成。该直接引语的主干为The most likely explanation is that …,破折号的部分对that引导的表语从句进行解释说明。该部分的主干为responsible society … is keeping an eye on us,不定式结构to see that …做目的状语。其中第一个that引导的从句做see的宾语,第二个that引导的从句做后置定语,修饰先行词chain reaction。
翻译:米德博士称“在我看来,最可能的解释是他们只不过是看看我们在做什么——我们太阳系之外有责任心的社会正留意着我们,以确保我们不会触发某种连锁反应,从而给太阳系之外的星系造成意想不到的影响。”
2. Just as we set aside wilderness areas and wildlife reserves to allow animals and growing things to develop naturally while we observe them, so perhaps Earth was set aside ages ago for the same purpose.
该句为主从复合句,just as引导方式状语从句,其中还嵌套了while引导的时间状语从句。主句部分的主干为perhaps Earth was set aside。
翻译:就像我们划出野生动物活动区和保护区以便我们可以在自然状态观察动植物的生长情况一样,或许地球就是很早以前为达到相同的目的而被划出的保护区。
3. Now we have to recognize that, among the stars in the heavens, there may very well be worlds inhabited by beings who are to us as we are to ants.
该句的主干为we have to recognize that …,that引导的从句做宾语。该从句的主干为there may very well be worlds,过去分词短语inhabited by beings …做后置定语,修饰名词worlds,who引导的定语从句也做后置定语,修饰beings。
翻译:现在我们必须认识到在茫茫星海中,也许就有这样的星体,那上面居住的生物看待我们就如同我们看待蚂蚁一样。

三、文章结构分析
本文是一篇探讨外星生物是否存的时文。
第一至三段:通过一位科学家的话引出争论的焦点:外星生物是否存在?
第四至八段:罗列了科学家们对此问题而产生的四种猜测—不愿同人类接触、在暗中留意人类的行动、只出于观察目的而不想同人类接触、地球是外星人划立的“动物”保护区。
第九段:总结全文,肯定外星生物的存在,并提醒人们宇宙中存在着更强大生物的可能性。

四、试题具体分析
11.        People who ask the question “Why don’t they get in touch with us... and declare themselves?” think that ________.        11. 提出“那么他们为什么不和我们联系呢?为什么他们不正好降落到白宫的草坪上然后自我介绍一下呢?”这些问题的人认为________.
[A] there are no such things as UFOs        [A] 不明飞行物这种东西是不存在的
[B] UFOs are visitors from solar system        [B] 不明飞行物是来自太阳系的探访者
[C] there’s no reason for UFOs sooner or later        [C] 对于不明飞行物的说法迟早会理屈词穷的
[D] we are bound to see UFOs sooner or later        [D] 人类迟早会看见不明飞行物的
[分析]本题考查的知识点是:推理引申。
根据第一、二段可知,题干中的问题是“如果将来自外太空的智能飞船正在造访地球作为对不明飞行物的合理解释”就会出现的问题。第四到七段引用科学家的话对这一问题给予了回复:对为什么人类同外星人之间没有联系进行了推测。可见,问这些问题的人并不相信外星生物或不明飞行物是存在的,而科学家的推测却在证明它们可能是存在的。故[A]选项正确。
[B]选项是根据UFOs和solar system编造的干扰项,且[B]选项本身表达亦不正确。文中指出如果外星人是存在的,那他们一定存在于太阳系之外的某个星系之中。[C]选项错在no reasons。文章第四到七段给出针对这些问题的解答,所以并非是理屈词穷。[D]选项反向干扰,从上面的分析可知提出问题的人是不相信UFOs是存在的,所以他们也不会认为迟早会见到不明飞行物。
12.        According to Dr. Mead, the attitude of beings from outer space toward us is one of ________.        12.米德博士认为来自外太空的生物对人类的看法会是_______。
[A] unfriendliness        [A] 不友善的
[B] suspicion        [B] 猜疑的
[C] superiority        [C] 盛气凌人的
[D] hostility        [D] 敌意的
[分析]本题考查的知识点是:推理引申。
根据题中人物关键词Dr. Mead定位到文章第五段。针对一些人提出的外星人为何不同人类接触的问题,米德博士认为最可能的解释就是他们只是负责留意我们,确保我们的行动不会触发能够危害到他们的连锁反应。由此可知,米德博士的观点是外星人对人类的态度应该是猜疑的,故[B]选项正确。
[A]、[C]选项都是其他猜测认为来外星生物会对人类所持的态度。[D]选项从文中无从推知。
13.        The tone of the writer is that of ________.        13. 作者的语气是________。
[A] doubt        [A] 怀疑的
[B] warning        [B] 警告的
[C] indifference        [C] 冷漠的
[D] criticism        [D] 批判的
[分析]本题考查的知识点是:作者态度。
文章第八段是作者观点的阐述。第八段第二句指出人类从未有过外星生物是否存在的想法正是人类自身的盲目优越感所致。作者认为也许正是这种盲目自大,使我们否定了外星生物的存在,但是外星生物一定是存在于茫茫宇宙的某个星体上,他们看待我们就如同我们看待蚂蚁一般。可见本文作者所持的是批判的态度,故[D]选项正确。
[A]选项反向干扰。第八段第三句话明确指出,我们必须认识到茫茫星海中也许真的有外星生物的存在。从文中无法得出作者对否定外星人存在的人所给的警示之语,故排除[B]选项。第八段中always, supreme, have to, who are to us as we are to ants等表明了作者并不是漠然的,故[C]选项错误。

五、全文翻译
一位科学家曾说过“我断定来自外太空的智能飞船正在造访地球。”
如果我们将其作为对不明飞行物的合理解释,那么问题马上就来了。
人们会问:“那么他们为什么不和我们联系呢?为什么他们不正好降落到白宫的草坪上然后自我介绍一下呢?”
对于这些问题,科学家们的回答是:虽然这也许是我们想要的,但这也许并不是他们想要的啊。
米德博士称“在我看来,最可能的解释是他们只不过是看看我们在做什么——我们太阳系之外有责任心的社会正留意着我们,以确保我们不会触发某种连锁反应,从而给太阳系之外的星系造成意想不到的影响。”
其他科学家的观点是这样的:“他们为什么要联系我们?我们也许把自己想的过于重要了!他们也许就是想观察我们而不想介入人类文明的发展。他们也许并不关心我们是否看到了他们,也不关心是否打个招呼。”
还有一些科学家认为,地球就是一个动物园或是野生动物保护区。就像我们划出野生动物活动区和保护区以便我们可以在自然状态观察动植物的生长情况一样,或许地球就是很早以前为达到相同的目的而被划出的保护区。
宇宙中其他文明的智能生物正在观察我们么?他们正留意我们在太空航行上的进展么?我们是生活在一个只能被“饲养员”观察却无法与其沟通的巨型“动物园”里么?
在人类的历史上,我们从未遇到过类似的想法。真相很简单,那就是我们总认为在整个宇宙中我们是至高无上的,可事实也许并非如此。现在我们必须认识到在茫茫星海中,也许就有这样的星体,那上面居住的生物看待我们就如同我们看待蚂蚁一样。


Text 2
①The use of the motor is becoming more and more widespread in the twentieth century; as an increasing number of countries develop both technically and economically, so a larger proportion of the world’s population is able to buy and use a car. ②Possessing a car gives a much greater degree of mobility, enabling the driver to move around freely. ③The owner of a car is no longer forced to rely on public transport and is, therefore, not compelled to work locally. ④He can choose from different jobs and probably changes his work more frequently as he is not restricted to a choice within a small radius. ⑤Travelling to work by car is also more comfortable than having to use public transport; the driver can adjust the heating in winter and the air conditioning in the summer to suit his own needs and preference. ⑥There is no irritation caused by waiting for trains, buses or underground trains, standing in long patient queues, or sitting on windy platforms, for as long as half an hour sometimes. ⑦With the building of good, fast motorways long distances can be covered rapidly and pleasantly. ⑧For the first time in this century also, many people are now able to enjoy their leisure time to the full by making trips to the country or seaside at the weekends, instead of being confined to their immediate neighbourhood. ⑨This feeling of independence, and the freedom to go where you please, is perhaps the greatest advantage of the car.
①When considering the drawbacks, perhaps pollution is of prime importance. ②As more and more cars are produced and used, so the emission from their exhaust-pipes contains an ever larger volume of poisonous gas. ③Some of the contents of this gas, such as lead, not only pollute the atmosphere but cause actual harm to the health of people. ④Many of the minor illnesses of modern industrial society, headaches, tiredness, and stomach upsets are thought to arise from breathing polluted air; doctors’ surgeries are full of people suffering from illnesses caused by pollution. ⑤It is also becoming increasingly difficult to deal with the problem of traffic in towns; most of the important cities of the world suffer from traffic congestion. ⑥In fact any advantage gained in comfort is often cancelled out in city driving by the frustration caused by traffic jams: endless queues of cars crawling one after another through all the main streets. ⑦As an increasing number of traffic regulation schemes are devised, the poor bewildered driver finds himself diverted and forced into one-way systems which cause even greater delays than the traffic jams they are supposed to prevent. ⑧The mounting cost of petrol and the increased license fees and road tax all add to the driver’s worries. ⑨In fact, he must sometimes wonder if the motor car is such a blessing and not just a menace.

一、词汇
1.Mobility n. 可动性,变动性
2.Radius n. 半径
3.Preference n. 偏爱
4.irritation n. 烦恼
5.queue n. 长队
6.cover v. 行走(距离)
7.confine v. 限制
8.prime a. 首要的,最好的
9.bewildered a. 困惑的
10.divert v. 转移
11.blessing n. 祝福
12.menace n. 威胁

二、长难句
As an increasing number of traffic regulation schemes are devised, the poor bewildered driver finds himself diverted and forced into one-way systems which cause even greater delays than the traffic jams they are supposed to prevent.
该句为主从复合句。句首为as引导的时间状语从句,主干为the poor bewildered driver finds himself diverted and forced …,其中包含“find oneself +过去分词”结构,意为“发现自己(处于某状态)”。Which引导的定语从句做后置定语,修饰先行词one-way systems。
翻译:当越来越多的交通管理方案出台时,晕头转向的司机发现可怜的自己被迫转进了一条单行道,这样耽误的时间超过了他们所避免的交通拥堵时间。


三、文章结构分析
文章主要探讨了汽车广泛使用的利弊问题。
第一段:指出了汽车广泛使用的原因并论述汽车给人类带来的好处:灵活、舒适、快捷、自主。
第二段:主要论述了由于汽车的广泛使用给人类带来的困扰:大气污染、健康威胁、交通堵塞、费用负担。

四、试题具体分析
14.        More and more people can afford to buy and use cars because ________.        14. 越来越多的人能够购买并使用汽车是因为________。
[A] an increasing number of cars are being produced        [A] 生产的汽车越来越多
[B] the cost of cars is getting cheaper with the development of technology        [B] 随着技术的进步,汽车的成本也越来越低了
[C] lots of countries have become more developed        [C] 许多国家都步入了发达国家之列
[D] the use of cars has proved to be more economical        [D] 已经证实使用汽车是较经济的
[分析]本题考查的知识点是:因果细节。
文章第一段①句指出,因为越来越多的国家在技术和经济领域都取得了进步,所以世界上大部分人都能购买并使用汽车了。[C]选项正是对此句话的概括,故正确。
[A]选项张冠李戴。将“汽车的尾气管里排出了更多含有有毒物质的废气的原因,即人们生产的汽车越来越多了”,当成是“越来越来人购买并使用汽车的原因”。[B]选项无中生有,是利用原文词汇develop technically和the cost 编造的干扰项。第二段⑧句指出,飙升的油价和日益上涨的驾驶执照费和养路费使驾车人变得更加忧心忡忡。可见,使用汽车并不会为其所有者节省钱,故排除[D]选项。
15.        The advantages of having a car are best experienced in the driver’s ________.        15. 拥有汽车最大的好处是驾车人能够体验________。
[A] freedom in choosing his job        [A] 选择工作的自由
[B] comfort during the travels        [B] 旅行中舒适的感觉
[C] enjoyment of his leisure time        [C] 闲暇时光的享受
[D] feeling of self-reliance        [D] 自立的感觉
[分析]本题考查的知识点是:具体细节。
第一段末句明确指出,自主的感觉以及去任何想去的地方的那种自由或许是汽车最大的优点了,故[D]选项正确。
[A]、[B]、[C]选项都是文中谈到的拥有汽车的好处,但并非最大优点,故排除。
16.        What is considered by the writer as the greatest menace to the people caused by the widespread use of motor cars?        16. 作者认为汽车的广泛使用对人们造成的最大威胁是什么?
[A] air pollution        [A]空气污染
[B] traffic jams        [B]交通堵塞
[C] fatal diseases        [C]致命疾病
[D] high cost        [D]高额成本
[分析]本题考查的知识点是:具体细节。
文章第二段①句即明确指出,对于汽车使用的最大弊端可能就是汽车造成的污染问题。故[A]选项正确。
[B]、[D]选项虽然都是汽车使用对人们生活和健康的威胁,但并不是最大的威胁,故排除。[C]选项本身即错误。第二段第四句指出,现代工业社会中许多小病都是由于吸入被汽车尾气污染了的空气而引起的。可知,汽车的使用并不会引发致命的疾病。

五、全文翻译
二十世纪,汽车的用途变得越来越广泛了,因为越来越多的国家在技术和经济领域都取得了进步,所以世界上大部分人都能购买并使用汽车了。拥有一辆汽车就相当于具有更大的灵活性,开车的人可以自由活动。有汽车的人不必再依靠公共交通工具,因此也不必在工作所在地居住了。他可以选择不同的工作,也可能更频繁地跳槽,他不必在离家很近的范围内选择工作了。同乘坐公共汽车相比,开车上班也更加舒适些,人们可以按自己的需要和喜好随着季节来调节车内供暖和空调系统。有时人们要花半个小时站在长长的队伍里或坐在当风的站台内等火车、公交或地铁,由这种情况导致的恼怒也会随着汽车的使用而消失。随着宽敞快捷的高速公路的修建,长途旅行变得快捷且愉快了。许多人能够在周末的时候开车去乡村或海边,好好地享受他们的闲暇时光,而不用限制在住家附近的地方活动,这在本世纪也属首次了。自主的感觉以及去任何想去的地方的那种自由或许是汽车最大的优点了。
考虑到不好的方面,汽车造成的污染或许是其最大的缺点。因为人们生产和使用的汽车越来越多,所以汽车的尾气管里会排出更多含有有毒物质的废气。这种气体中一些成分的,例如铅,不仅污染了大气还对人们健康造成了实际伤害。人们认为现代工业社会中许多小病,例如,头痛、疲劳以及胃不适,都是由于吸入污浊的空气而引起的,医生的诊室里面充满了受其累的病患。处理城市里交通问题也变得越来越棘手了,世界上大多数重要城市都饱受交通堵塞之苦。事实上,在城市中驾车而行,从这种舒适中获取的任何好处都被由交通堵塞造成的沮丧感给抵消了:一眼望不到边际的汽车长龙,一辆跟着一辆慢慢爬过每一条主街道。当越来越多的交通管理方案出台时,晕头转向的司机发现可怜的自己被迫转进了一条单行道,这样耽误的时间超过了他们所避免的交通拥堵时间。飙升的油价和日益上涨的驾驶执照费和养路费使驾车人变得更忧心忡忡。事实上,他肯定有时候会想弄清楚汽车真的只会带来幸福而不会对我们造成威胁么。

Text 3
①Manners nowadays in metropolitan cities like London are practically non-existent. ②It is nothing for a big, strong schoolboy to elbow an elderly woman aside in the dash for the last remaining seat on the tube or bus, much less stand up and offer his seat to her, as he ought. ③In fact, it is saddening to note that if a man does offer his seat to an older woman, it is nearly always a Continental man or one from the older generation.
①This question of giving up seats in public transport is much argued about by young men, who say that, since women have claimed equality, they no longer deserve to be treated with courtesy and that those who go out to work should take their turn in the rat race like anyone else. ②Women have never claimed to be physically as strong as men. ③Even if it is not agreed, however, that young men should stand up for younger women, the fact remains that courtesy should be shown to the old, the sick and the burdened. ④Are we really so lost to all ideals of unselfishness that we can sit there indifferently reading the paper or a book, saying to ourselves “First come, first served,” while a grey-haired woman, a mother with a young child or a cripple stands? ⑤Yet this is all too often seen.
①Conditions in travel are really very hard on everyone, we know, but hardship is surely no excuse. ②Sometimes one wonders what would have been the behaviour of these stout young men in a packed refugee train or a train on its way to a prison-camp during the War. ③Would they have considered it only right and their proper due to keep the best places for themselves then?
①Older people, tired and irritable from a day’s work, are not angels, either — far from it. ②Many a brisk argument or an insulting quarrel breaks out as the weary queues push and shove each other to get on buses and tubes. ③One cannot commend this, of course, but one does feel there is just a little more excuse.
①If cities are to remain pleasant places to live in at all, however, it seems imperative, not only that communications in transport should be improved, but also that communication between human beings should be kept smooth and polite. ②All over cities, it seems that people are too tired and too rushed to be polite. ③Shop assistants won’t bother to assist, taxi drivers growl at each other as they dash dangerously round corners, bus conductor pull the bell before their desperate passengers have had time to get on or off the bus, and so on and so on. ④It seems to us that it is up to the young and strong to do their small part to stop such deterioration.

一、词汇
1.metropolitan a. 大都市的
2.practically ad. 几乎,简直,实际上
3.elbow v. 用手肘推开
4.dash n. 冲撞
5.tube n. 地铁
6.much less ad. 更不必说(何况)
7.note v. 注意
8.continental a. 大陆的
9.courtesy n. 礼貌
10.rat race卑鄙的竞争, 你死我活的竞争
11.cripple n. 跛者,残疾人
12.irritable a. 易怒的,烦躁的
13.brisk a. 敏锐的, 凛冽的, 轻快的
14.weary a. 疲倦的,厌烦的
15.shove v. 推挤
16.commend v. 委托,推荐,嘉奖
17.imperative a. 命令式的,急需的
18.growl v. 怒吠,咆哮

二、长难句
1. It is nothing for a big, strong schoolboy to elbow an elderly woman aside in the dash for the last remaining seat on the tube or bus, much less stand up and offer his seat to her, as he ought.
该句的主干为It is nothing for sb (a big, strong schoolboy) to do sth(to elbow an elderly woman aside … ),其中it为形式主语,不定式结构to do sth为真正的主语。much less用于否定句之后,表示程度减少,意为“更何况,更不用说”。句末as引导了方式状语从句,且为省略句,其完整形式是as he ought to (stand up and offer his seat to her)。
翻译:个大个头,身体强壮的男学生在冲向地铁或公共汽车的最后一个座位时,用肘部把一个老太太推向一旁,这已经不算什么了,更别指望他站起来把座位让给老太太,尽管他应该那样做。
2. In fact, it is saddening to note that if a man does offer his seat to an older woman, it is nearly always a Continental man or one from the older generation.
该句的主干为it is saddening to note that …,其中it为形式主语,that引导的从句为真正的主语。该从句为主从复合句,包含了if引导的条件状语从句。
翻译:实际上,我们悲哀地发现如果真有一个人把自己的座位让给老年妇女,那么这个人几乎总是欧洲大陆人或是老一辈的人。
3. This question of giving up seats in public transport is much argued about by young men, who say that, since women have claimed equality, they no longer deserve to be treated with courtesy and that those who go out to work should take their turn in the rat race like anyone else.
该句的主干为This question … is much argued about,主语名词question后接有介词短语of giving up seats in public transport做后置定语。Who引导的定语从句,也做后置定语,修饰名词young men。该定语从句的主干为who (young men) say that … and that …,两个that引导的从句做say的宾语。
翻译:在公共交通工具上让座的问题常被青年人反驳,他们说,既然妇女要求平等,那么她们将不应再被礼貌对待,那些出去工作的人应该像其他任何人一样在你死我活的竞争中轮流等候。
4. Even if it is not agreed, however, that young men should stand up for younger women, the fact remains that courtesy should be shown to the old, the sick and the burdened.
该句为主从复合句。插入语however表明该句与上文之间的转折关系。句首为even if引导的让步状语从句,其主干为it is not agreed that …,it为形式主语,that引导的从句为真正的主语。主句为the fact remains that …,其中that引导的从句为the fact的同位语。
翻译:即使在年轻男子应该让位给年轻女子的做法上不能达成共识,但是对那些老人、病者和负重之人仍应给予礼貌。
5. Are we really so lost to all ideals of unselfishness that we can sit there indifferently reading the paper or a book, saying to ourselves “First come, first served,” while a grey-haired woman, a mother with a young child or a cripple stands?
该句为主从复合句形式的疑问句。主句为Are we really so lost to all ideals of unselfishness … ,其中that引导的从句we can sit …first served,” 做后置定语,修饰名词短语ideals of unselfishness。句末为while引导的时间状语从句。
翻译:难道我们真的丧失了所有的无私思想,以至于当一位白发苍苍的老太太、一位抱着孩子的母亲或一位伤残者站在旁边时,我们仍然能够如此漫不经心地读着报纸或一本书,同时对自己说“先来,先享受”吗?
6. If cities are to remain pleasant places to live in at all, however, it seems imperative, not only that communications in transport should be improved, but also that communication between human beings should be kept smooth and polite.
该句为主从复合句,句首为if引导的条件状语从句,主句为it seems imperative not only that …but also that …,其中it为形式主语,not only… but also …连接的两个that引导的并列从句为真正的主语。
翻译:然而,如果城市还打算保持其良好的居住环境,这一点十分必要,不仅运输工具要改进,人类之间的交流也更有必要保持畅通和有礼貌。

三、文章结构分析
这篇文章以交通工具上的让座问题为切入点,主要探讨城市中的礼貌缺失现象,论证方法为说理和例证。
第一段指出现象:礼貌在大城市中已经不复存在,并以如今年轻人不给老年人让座为例说明这一情况的恶劣性。
第二段提出年轻人对不让座这种行为的解释(女性要求平等对待),作者对此进行反驳,指出这一理由不能推而广之。
第三、四段分析交通工具上礼貌缺失的潜在原因,并对其进行驳斥:第三段指出原因之一——旅行条件的艰苦,随后以难民车和战时开往集中营的车为例反驳这一理由。第四段指出原因之二——人们因工作劳累而变得疲倦和易怒,随后指出这只是一种借口。
第五段提出警告与建议:列举城市中礼貌缺失的种种表现,指出礼貌对于城市的良好居住环境十分必要,并就此提出建议——改善交通工具和人际交流。

四、试题具体分析
17.        From what you have read, would you expect manners to improve among people ________?        17.从文中可以推知,你会期望哪一类人的礼貌会有所改善?
[A] who are physically weak or crippled        [A] 身体虚弱的人或残疾人
[B] who once lived in a prison-camp during the War        [B] 战争期间曾生活在集中营的人
[C] who live in big modern cities        [C] 生活于现代大城市中的人
[D] who live only in metropolitan cities        [D] 只生活于大都市的人
[分析]本题所考查的知识点是:文章主旨。
此题实际上考查文章中论述现象(礼貌缺失)的主体。第一段首句指出,礼貌在伦敦这样的大都市(metropolitan cities like London)已经不复存在。第一段②③句提出交通工具上的让座问题,指出当今年轻人缺少应有礼貌。第二、三和四段对当今年轻人这一行为的理由和交通工具上让座问题的潜在原因进行分析,作者随后对这些原因进行一一反驳。第五段将现象范围扩大(cities),指出礼貌对于良好居住环境的重要性,并对此提出建议。[C]选项概括文章中的论述现象的主体(schoolboys、young men、older people、shop assistants、taxi drivers、bus conductors),为正确项。
[A]和[B]选项张冠李戴,身体虚弱的人或残疾人是应该获得礼貌对待的对象,而非需要改善礼貌的主体;第三段以难民车和集中营的人来反驳造成让座问题的原因(旅行条件艰苦),而非期望他们改善礼貌。[D]选项以偏概全,第五段将范围扩大至整个城市,而非仅局限于大都市。
18.        What is the writer’s opinion concerning courteous manners towards women?        18. 作者对于给予女性礼貌对待的观点是什么?
[A] Now that women have claimed equality, they no longer need to be treated differently from men.        [A] 既然女性宣称平等,那么她们就应该得到与男性一样的对待。
[B] It is generally considered old-fashioned for young men to give up their seats to young women.        [B] 年轻男人让座给年轻女人被认为是老旧的做法。
[C] “Lady First” should be universally practiced.        [C] “女士优先”应当被广为推广。
[D] Special consideration ought to be shown them.        [D] 应该给予女性特别的关照。
[分析]本题所考查的知识点是:作者观点。
文章第二段首句指出年轻人不让座的原因:女性要求平等对待。但随后②句指出,女性从未声明像男性一样强壮(,因此她们还应获得些许特别关照)。[D]选项正确。
[A]选项反向干扰,这是年轻人的观点,也是作者所反驳的观点。[B]和[C]选项从文中无从推知。
19.        According to the author communication between human beings would be smoother if ________.        19.作者认为人与人之间的交流将会变得更加容易,如果________。
[A] people were more considerate towards each other        [A] 人们对彼此多加关照。
[B] people were not so tired and irritable        [B] 人们不那么劳累和易怒。
[C] women were treated with more courtesy        [C] 女性得到更多礼貌对待。
[D] public transport could be improved        [D] 公共交通有所改善。
[分析]本题所考查的知识点是:作者观点。
作者以交通工具上的让座问题为切入点来探讨城市中礼貌缺失的现象。文章第二段指出,人们对于那些身处弱势的人(如女性、老人、病人和残疾人等)应当怀有无私思想,应当给予礼貌对待。[A]选项正确。
文章第四段前两句指出人们因为工作劳累而变得疲倦易怒,以至于失去礼貌,但③句则指出这只是一种借口,排除[B]选项。[C]和[D]选项以偏概全,女性只是应当获得礼貌对待的对象之一,其他对象还包括老人、病人、残疾人等;交通工具上的让座问题仅是作者例举的礼貌缺失的一种典型现象,因此改善交通工具并不能解决礼貌缺失这一整体现象。
20.        What is the possible meaning of the word “deterioration” in the last paragraph?        20.最后一段的词语“deterioration”的意思可能是________。
[A] worsening of general situation        [A] 总体情况的恶化
[B] lowering of moral standards        [B] 道德标准的下降
[C] declining of physical constitution        [C] 身体素质的下降
[D] spreading of evil conduct        [D] 恶劣行为的传播
[分析]本题所考查的知识点是:根据上下文推测词义。
Deterioration前有such修饰,联系上文,应当指作者前面列出的礼貌缺失的种种表现(商店售货员不愿助人,出租车司机彼此怒目而视,公共汽车售票员粗鲁举止,这种种行为体现了人们道德素质的下降,进而说明道德标准的降低,[B]选项正确。
[A]选项范围太过宽泛,而无法具体概括文章所指出的问题。[C]选项从文中无从推知。[D]选项局限于表面,而没有深刻领会现象背后的意义。

五、全文翻译
如今,礼貌在像伦敦这样的大都市里实际上已经不存在了。一个大个头,身体强壮的男学生在冲向地铁或公共汽车的最后一个座位时,用肘部把一个老太太推向一旁,这已经不算什么了,更别指望他站起来把座位让给老太太,尽管他应该那样做。实际上,我们悲哀地发现如果真有一个人把自己的座位让给老年妇女,那么这个人几乎总是欧洲大陆人或是老一辈的人。
在公共交通工具上让座的问题常被青年人反驳,他们说,既然妇女要求平等,那么她们将不应再被礼貌对待,那些出去工作的人应该像其他任何人一样在你死我活的竞争中轮流等候。妇女从未声明像男子一样身强力壮。即使在年轻男子应该让位给年轻女子的做法上不能达成共识,但是对那些老人、病者和负重之人仍应给予礼貌。难道我们真的丧失了所有的无私思想,以至于当一位白发苍苍的老太太、一位抱着孩子的母亲或一位伤残者站在旁边时,我们仍然能够如此漫不经心地读着报纸或一本书,同时对自己说“先来,先享受”吗? 然而这却是太常见的景象了。
我们知道,对每个人来讲,旅途中的条件都是很苦的,但是艰苦确实不是理由。有时人们想知道,在一列拥挤的难民车或在战期驶往监狱的火车上,那些强壮的年轻男子会怎样做。那时,他们会不会认为为自己留下最好的位子是正确的并且是他们的应得的权益?
老人,常因一天的工作变得劳累且易怒,他们也不会表现得如天使一般——远远不会。上地铁或公共汽车时,疲倦的人们前挤后拥,彼此推搡,许多激烈的或侮辱性的争吵就会爆发。当然,我们无法说这种现象是错是对,只是能理解疲倦是其发生的原因之一。
然而,如果城市还打算保持其良好的居住环境,这一点十分必要,不仅运输工具要改进,人类之间的交流也更有必要保持畅通和有礼貌。整个城市里,似乎人们太疲倦,太匆忙以至于做不到讲礼貌。商店售货员嫌麻烦不愿过来帮忙;出租汽车司机们在拐角处危险地冲过去时,他们会彼此大吼大叫;公共汽车售票员在拼命的乘客们尚未来得及上下车之前,拉动车铃,等等,等等。在我们看来正是年轻人和强壮者出一点力以阻止这种状况恶化的时候了。


Section III        English-Chinese Translation
Translate the following passage into Chinese. Only the underlined sentences are to be translated. (20 points)

When Jane Matheson started work at Advanced Electronics Inc. 12 years ago, (21) she laboured over a microscope, hand-welding tiny electronic computers and turned out 18 per hour. Now she tends the computerized machinery that turns out high capacity memory chips at the rate of 2,600 per hour. Production is up, profits are up, her income is up and Mrs. Matheson says the work is far less strain on her eyes.
But the most significant effect of the changes at AEI was felt by the workers who are no longer there. Before the new computerized equipment was introduced, there were 940 workers at the plant. Now there are 121. (22) A plant follow-up survey showed that one year after the layoffs only 38% of the released workers found new employment at the same or better wages. Nearly half finally settled for lower pay and more than 13% are still out of work. The AEI example is only one of hundreds around the country which forge intelligently ahead into the latest technology, but leave the majority of their workers behind.
(23) Its beginnings obscured by unemployment caused by the world economic slow-down, the new technological unemployment may emerge as the great socio-economic challenge of the end of the 20th century. One corporation economist says the growth of “machine job replacement” has been with us since the beginning of the industrial revolution, but never at the pace it is now. The human costs will be astonishing. (24) “It’s humiliating to be done out of your job by a machine and there is no way to fight back, but it is the effort to find a new job that really hurts.” Some workers, like Jane Matheson, are retrained to handle the new equipment, but often a whole new set of skills is required and that means a new, and invariably smaller set of workers. (25) The old workers, trapped by their limited skills, often never regain their old status and employment. Many drift into marginal areas. They feel no pride in their new work. They get badly paid for it and they feel miserable, but still they are luckier than those who never find it.
(26) The social costs go far beyond the welfare and unemployment payments made by the government. Unemployment increases the chances of divorce, child abuse, and alcoholism, a new federal survey shows. Some experts say the problem is only temporary... that new technology will eventually create as many jobs as it destroys. (27) But futurologist Hymen Seymour says the astonishing efficiency of the new technology means there will be a simple and direct net reduction in the amount of human labor that needs to be done. “We should treat this as an opportunity to give people more leisure. It may not be easy, but society will have to reach a new unanimity on the division and distribution of labor,” Seymour says. He predicts most people will work only six-hour days and four-day weeks by the end of the century. But the concern of the unemployed is for now. (28) Federally funded training and free back-to-school programs for laid-off workers are under way, but few experts believe they will be able to keep up with the pace of the new technology. For the next few years, for a substantial portion of the workforce, times are going to be very tough indeed.


一、试题结构分析
本文开始以一位在高级电子设备公司工作的员工为例说明技术的发展提高了工作效率和改善了工作条件,接着转折指出,但技术的发展却造成了失业率的提高,并分析失业率带来的不良影响。

二、试题具体解析
21.        本题考核的知识点是:并列结构
[句子结构] 该句的主语是she,谓语是and连接的并列动词短语laboured over 和turned out 18 per hour。laboured over后接有并列的名词a microscope和hand-welding tiny electronic computers。
[词义确定]laboured over意为“辛苦工作”,welding意为“焊接”,turn out意为“生产”。
[翻译]她吃力地伏在显微镜上干活,手焊体积很小的电子计算机,每小时能焊好18个。
22.        本题考核的知识点是:宾语从句
[句子结构]该句的主干为A plant follow-up survey showed that…,that引导的从句做宾语。
[词义确定]plant意为“工厂”;follow-up意为“跟进,跟踪”;layoff意为“临时解雇”;released意为“解雇的”。
[翻译]一家工厂的跟踪调查表明,被解雇的工人中一年后只有38%的人找到了与原工资相等或优于原工资的新工作。
23.        本题考核的知识点是:独立主格结构
[句子结构]该句句首为“逻辑主语+过去分词”构成的独立主格结构:Its beginnings obscured by … slow-down,做让步状语。句子主干为the new technological unemployment may emerge as …。
[词义确定]obscure意为“隐藏”;emerge as意为“成为”。
[翻译]虽然它(新技术的采用导致失业上升)一开始被全球性的经济衰退所引起的失业所掩盖,但到20世纪末,新技术所引起的失业问题可能会构成对社会经济的巨大挑战。
24.        本题考核的知识点是:并列句,强调句
[句子结构]该句为but连接的并列句。but前的分句的主干为It’s humiliating to be … and there is no way to fight back,but后的分句为强调句,即it is the effort … that really hurts。
[词义确定]humiliating意为“丢脸的”;be done out of your job意为“失业”。
[翻译]被一台机器抢走你的工作是很伤自尊心的,可又没法还击,但真正伤我心的是要费很大的劲去寻找新的工作。
25.        本题考核的知识点是:后置定语
[句子结构]该句是个简单句,主干为The old workers … often never regain their old status and employment,过去分词短语trapped by their limited skills做后置定语,修饰主语名词The old workers。
[词义确定]trapped意为“受限制”;regain意为“恢复,复得”。
[翻译]老工人由于处于技术掌握得很有限的困境,往往不能重新获得其原有的地位和就业机会。
26.        本题考核的知识点是:后置定语
[句子结构]该句是个简单句,主干为The social costs go far beyond the welfare and unemployment payments,过去分词短语made by the government做后置定语,修饰名词the welfare and unemployment payments。
[词义确定]go beyond意为“超过(胜过)”。
[翻译]要付出的社会代价远远超过政府在福利与失业救济方面的开支。
27.        本题考核的知识点是:宾语从句, 定语从句
[句子结构]该句的主干为But futurologist Hymen Seymour says,后面部分为省略了关系代词的宾语从句。该从句的主干为the astonishing efficiency of the new technology means,后面部分也为省略了关系代词的宾语从句。该从句的主干为there will be a simple and direct net reduction in the amount of human labor,定语从句that needs to be done修饰名词human labor。
[词义确定]futurologist意为“未来学家”;astonishing意为“可惊异的”;net意为“净余的,纯粹的”。
[翻译]但是未来学家海曼•西摩说,新技术所具有的惊人效率意味着所需要的劳力将出现一个绝对的和直接的净减数。
28.        本题考核的知识点是:并列句, 宾语从句
[句子结构]该句为but连接的并列句,but后的分句的主干为few experts believe,后面为省略了关系代词的宾语从句(that) they will be able to keep up with the pace of the new technology.
[词义确定]fund意为“资助”;under way意为“在进行中”;keep up with意为“跟上”;pace意为“速度”。
[翻译]为失业工人提供的由联邦政府资助的培训计划和免费重返学校学习的计划目前都在实施中,但很少有专家认为这些计划能跟得上新技术的发展步伐。


三、全文翻译
当简•马西森十二年前在高级电子设备公司开始工作时,(21)她吃力地伏在显微镜上干活,手焊体积很小的电子计算机,每小时能焊好18个。现在她照料每小时可生产2600个高容量存储芯片的电脑化机器。生产提高了,利润增加了,收入也增加了。马西森女士说现在的工作对她眼睛的损害减少了很多。
但是高级电子设备公司的变化所带来的最显著的影响却是那些不在该公司工作的工人感受到的。在引进新的电脑设备之前,工厂里有940名工人。现在有121个人。(22)一家工厂的跟踪调查表明,被解雇的工人中一年后只有38%的人找到了与原工资相等或优于原工资的新工作。几乎一半的人最终接受了低收入的工作,超过13%的人仍然处于失业状态。在这个国家像高级电子设备公司这样的例子还有几百个,它们进入了最新智能技术阶段,但是将大多数工人都抛在了后面。
(23)虽然它(新技术的采用导致失业上升)一开始被全球性的经济衰退所引起的失业所掩盖,但到20世纪末,新技术所引起的失业问题可能会构成对社会经济的巨大挑战。一位企业经济学家说,自工业革命开始“机器替代工作”就一直伴随着我们,但却从未达到现在的速度。人类付出的代价将是惊人的。(24)被一台机器抢走你的工作是很伤自尊心的,可又没法还击,但真正伤我心的是要费很大的劲去寻找新的工作。像简•马西森这样的一些工人在操作这种新设备时有局限,但操作它往往需要一整套新技能,而这往往意味着需要更少的一批新工人。(25)老工人由于处于技术掌握得很有限的困境,往往不能重新获得其原有的地位和就业机会。许多人转向边缘领域的工作。他们对自己的新工作没有自豪感。他们的待遇很差,因而感到很痛苦,但是相比那些从未找到工作的人而言,他们仍然是幸运的。
(26)要付出的社会代价远远超过政府在福利与失业救济方面的开支。一项新的联邦调查显示,失业率增加导致离婚几率、虐待儿童、酗酒的增加。一些专家说这个问题只是暂时的…,新技术最终将创造与失去的同样多的就业机会。(27)但是未来学家海曼•西摩说,新技术所具有的惊人效率意味着所需要的劳力将出现一个绝对的和直接的净减数。塞莫尔说:“我们应该将这视为一个给人们更多休闲的机会。这也许不容易,但社会在劳动分工和分配上必然将达到一种新的一致。”他预计到本世纪末大部分人将每日只工作六小时,每周工作四天。但是失业的担忧却是现在就存在的。(28)为失业工人提供的由联邦政府资助的培训计划和免费重返学校学习的计划目前都在实施中,但很少有专家认为这些计划能跟得上新技术的发展步伐。未来的几年中对于很大比例的劳动力而言,将是一个非常艰难的时代。


1990年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题


Section I Close Test
For each numbered blank in the following passage there are four choices labeled [A], [B], [C], and [D]. Choose the best one and put your choice in the ANSWER SHEET. Read the whole passage before making your choice. (10 points)

①No one knows for sure what the world would be like in the year 2001. ②Many books have been written   1   the future. ③But the 19th-century French novelist Jules Verne may be called a futurologist in the fullest   2   of the word. ④In his fantastic novels “A Trip to the Moon” and “80 Days Around the World,” he described with detail the aeroplane and even the helicopter. ⑤ These novels still have a great attraction   3   young readers of today because of their bold imagination and scientific accuracy.
⑥Below is a description of what our life will be in the year 2001 as predicted by a   4   writer.
⑦In 2001, in the home, cookers will be set so that you can cook a complete meal at the touch of a switch.
⑧Television will provide information on prices at the   5   shops as well as news and entertainment. ⑨Videophones will bring pictures as well as   6   to telephone conversations.
⑩Machines will control temperature, lighting, entertainment, security alarms, laundry and gardening.
○11Lighting will provide decoration as well as wallpaper.
○12At work, robots will take   7   most jobs in the manufacturing industries. ○13Working hours will fall to under 30 hours a week. ○14Holidays will get longer; six weeks will be the normal annual holiday. ○15Men and women will retire at the same age.
○16Our leisure will be different too. ○17The home will become the center of entertainment through television and electronic games. ○18More people will eat out in restaurants   8   they do today; also they will have a much wider variety of food available. ○19There will be a change of taste towards a more savoury-flavored menu. ○20New synthetic foods will form a   9   part of people’s diets.
○21Foreign travel will   10  ; winter holidays will become more popular than summer ones. ○22Also non-stop flights from Britain to Australia and New Zealand will be easily available and much cheaper. ○23Education will become increasingly more important than ever before.(321 words)
1. [A] in                        [B] of                        [C] about                        [D] for
2. [A] sense                [B] meaning                [C] detail                        [D] implication
3. [A] for                        [B] of                        [C] on                        [D] towards
4. [A] today                [B] nowadays                [C] present-day                [D] present
5. [A] near                [B] nearby                        [C] nearly                        [D] nearer
6. [A] noise                [B] sound                        [C] tone                        [D] tune
7. [A] to                        [B] away                        [C] off                        [D] over
8. [A] than                [B] as                        [C] when                        [D] while
9. [A] usual                [B] popular                [C] daily                        [D] regular
10.[A] add                        [B] increase                [C] raise                        [D] arise

一、文章结构分析
本文是一篇说明文,介绍了在一位现代作家眼中,2001年的世界将会变成什么样子。
第一段是文章的引子部分,引出“预测未来世界”的话题。①②句先让步指出,没有人能够确信未来的世界是什么样子;以前有过许多描述未来的书。③至⑤句转折后引出了一个特例,即一位法国小说家在其作品中准确地预测了未来,他的作品对当代年轻人仍然有吸引力。
第二段(⑥句)是过渡段,转入这位作家对2001年未来人类生活的具体描述。
第三至九段分别从不同侧面阐述这位作家对未来的预测:第三至六段列举了家庭生活设施的变化;第七段介绍了与工作相关的变化;第八段指出休闲方式的变化;第九段介绍了出国旅行和教育的变化。

二、试题具体分析
1. [A] in                       [B] of                      [C] about                      [D] for
本题考核的知识点是:上下文语义+介词辨析
[快速解题]空格处填入的介词与books…the future搭配,意为“…未来的书”。选项中的介词都可与the future构成介宾搭配,但符合上下文语义的只有about。它带入文中,意为“关于未来,(人们)写过很多书”。其他项的搭配in the future“今后”,of the future“未来的”,for the future“为了将来”代入文中均无法说通,应排除。
[篇章分析]①②句引出全文要论述的话题:书中关于2001年的世界的描述。①句的主干结构为No one knows,what引导宾语从句。
[空格设置]本题考查介词about表示“关于,对于”的用法,例句:I’ve read about the incident.关于这一事件的情况我读到过。
[干扰项设置]其他项均为常用介词,含义和用法都非常丰富,考生需要正确理解上下文语义才能排除干扰。
2. [A] sense感觉;理解;意义                                [B]meaning 意义;价值
[C]detail细节;详情                                                [D]implication 影响;含意;牵连
本题考核的知识点是:固定搭配+名词辨析
[快速解题] in the … sense of是固定短语,意为“从…的意义上讲”,文中空格所在部分意为“从‘未来学家’这个词语最为完整的意义上讲”,符合文意。其他项代入后均不符合逻辑,所以排除。
[篇章分析] ③句与①②句是转折关系,①②句指出没有人能够准确预测未来是什么样子,③句提出特例——法国小说家儒勒•凡尔纳在其作品中准确描述了未来的世界。
[空格设置] ③句是一个简单句,固定搭配in …sense of the word是该句的唯一难点。例句如:He was a true friend, in every sense of the word.无论从哪个角度讲,他都是个真正的朋友。
[干扰项设置]其他项都是抽象名词,且都有与sense相近的含义,其中implication难度较大,例句:They failed to consider the wider implications of their actions.他们没有考虑到他们的行动会产生更广泛的影响。He criticized the Director and, by implication, the whole of the organization.他抨击主管,其实是间接批评了整个机构。He resigned after his implication in a scandal.他在涉及一桩丑闻之后辞职了。
3. [A] for                        [B] of                        [C] on                        [D] towards
本题考核的知识点是:上下文语义+介词搭配
[快速解题]空格所在部分为have a great attraction  3  young readers,空格处填入的介词引出“吸引”的对象,这部分的含义为:对年轻读者有强烈的吸引力。have attraction for sb 是固定搭配,意为“对…有吸引力”,因此[A]为正确选项。
[篇章分析]③句与④⑤句是解说关系,③句指出儒勒•凡尔纳是一位未来学家,④⑤句揭示了这样说的原因。
[空格设置]本题考查了名词与介词的搭配用法,for的用法很多,需要考生正确理解上下文语义作出正确判断。
[干扰项设置]其他项都是常用介词,其中of也常与attraction进行搭配,意为“…的吸引力”,如:I can’t see the attraction of sitting on the beach all day.我看不出整天坐在海滩上有什么乐趣。towards可表示“对,对于”,但常指对……的态度,如:He was warm and tender towards her.他对她既热情又温柔。our attitude towards death我们对死亡的态度。                                             
4.[A]today(在)今天;当今                                [B]nowadays现今,现在
[C]present-day现代的                                    [D]present现存的,当前的
本题考核的知识点是:句内语义+词汇辨析
[快速解题]空格处填入的词做定语,修饰writer,意为“…作家”。首先从语义上排除present,它指现在存在或发生的,它修饰“作家”语义不通。从语法结构上说,today与nowadays表示“当今,现今”含义时是副词,都不能作定语修饰名词,应排除。present-day代入文中意为“现代作家”,符合文意,所以选[A]。
[篇章分析]⑥句单句成段,由上文前人对未来的预测过渡到下文介绍一位现代作家对未来的具体描述。句间存在总分关系,⑥句总起,下文⑦句至文末分述。
[空格设置]本题既考查了基本的语法知识,也考查了考生对于文意的理解。
[干扰项设置]其他项都是简单词,在词义和用法上对present-day进行干扰。present例句:in the present situation/case在当前形势/情况下;the present owner of the house现在的房主。
5.[A]near接近,靠近                                          [B]nearby附近的,在附近
[C]nearly几乎,将近                                        [D]nearer更近的
本题考核的知识点是:句内语义+词义辨析
[快速解题]空格所在部分at the  5  shops意为“在…的商店”。首先在语法搭配上排除副词nearly;near做形容词表示“距离近”时通常不用于名词前;文中也没有涉及距离远近的比较,排除nearer。因此本题正确选项为[B],文中nearby shops意为“附近的商店”。
[篇章分析]⑧句的主干为Television will provide,宾语是as well as 连接的平行结构,information与news and entertainment都是电视提供的内容。
[选项设置]本题比较简单,考查了nearby做形容词的用法。
[干扰项设置]其他项都是由near派生出来的词,在词形和词义上都与near有相近之处,考生要理解句意并掌握词的用法,排除干扰。
6.[A]noise噪音                                                        [B]sound声音
[C]tone语气,强调                                        [D]tune曲调,曲子
本题考核的知识点是:上下文语义+名词辨析
[快速解题]空格所在部分为pictures as well as  6 并列结构,as well as表明空格处填入的名词与pictures相对,即“……和声音”。四个选项中,只有sound泛指各种声音,能与pictures相对,且符合文意,其他项都不是文中所要表达的内容,应排除。
[篇章分析]⑧⑨句是并列关系,分别介绍了电视与电话的发展。as well as 的运用也使两个句子在形式上实现了相互照应。
[空格设置]本题较为简单,考查了sound的基本用法,但需要考生理解上下文做出选择。
[干扰项设置]其他项利用其他表示“声音”的名词对sound进行干扰,比较容易排除。
7.[A](take) to逃往,躲到;养成…习惯;培养…能力;开始喜欢
[B](take) away解除,消除(感情、痛苦等)
[C](take) off(诙谐地)模仿(某人);换下(某人);脱下;休假;取消;剪掉,截去
[D](take) over接替,接任,接管;(通过购买股份)接收
本题考核的知识点是:短语动词。
[快速解题]空格所在部分robots will take  7  most jobs,意为“机器人将会…大部分工作”。四个选项与take搭配符合文意的只有take over,意为“机器人将接管大部分工作”,所以选[D]。
[篇章分析]第七段描述人们工作方面将发生的变化,段内四个短句(○12—○15句)之间是并列关系,分别讲述了四种变化。
[空格设置]本题考查动词短语take over的用法。例句:to take over the foreign-owned oil fields接收外资油田;The firm has been taken over by an American conglomerate. 该公司已被一家美国企业集团接管。
[干扰项设置]其他项都是脱离上下文,利用take的常用搭配设置的干扰。例句:I’ve taken to waking up very early.我已形成习惯,醒得很早。He hasn’t taken to his new school.他对新学校还没产生兴趣。I was given some pills to take away the pain.我得到了一些止痛药片。He was taken off after 20 minutes.20分钟后他被替换下场。take a few days off休息几天;The show was taken off because of poor audience figures.该剧目因不卖座而停演了。
8.[A]than比(表比较)                                        [B]as如同(表比较);随着(表时间)
[C]when当…的时候(表时间)                [D]while而(表比较);尽管(表让步)
本题考核的知识点是:句内逻辑关系
[快速解题]空格所在句为More people will eat out in restaurants  8  they do today,其中more people will与they do today明显表示出了空格处填入的词表示当今与未来的比较。more…than…是固定搭配,表示“与…相比,更多…”,代入文中意为“与现今相比,人们将更多地外出去餐馆就餐”,符合句子的语义要求。when一般不表示比较,首先排除。as表比较时常用as…as…结构,意为“像……一样”,强调两者的一致性。while强调两事物的对比,意为“…然而”,也不与more搭配使用,应排除。
[篇章分析] ○16句是第八段的主旨句,指出人们在休闲生活方面将发生变化。○17句讲娱乐,○18——○20讲饮食,这两部分之间是并列关系。
[空格设置]本题借助表示比较关系的关联词than考查了考生对句子内部逻辑关系的理解。
[干扰项设置]其他项都是常用的表示逻辑关系的词,也是知识运用的常考点,需要掌握。
9.[A]usual通常的,寻常的                                [B]popular受欢迎的,大众的
[C]daily每日的,日常的                                [D]regular有规律的,经常发生的
本题考核的知识点是:上下文语义+形容词辨析
[快速解题]空格所在的○20句仍然在预测饮食上的变化,空格处填入的形容词应该能体现出当今与未来的对比。四个选项中,只有regular“经常出现”能够反应这种对比,强调了synthetic foods合成食品的普及。usual,popular与daily都不能体现这种比较,应排除。
[空格设置]regular的含义和用法都很丰富,考生要根据上下文作出正确选择。
[干扰项设置]其他项在用法上都说得通,干扰性较强,其中usual与daily还对regular形成近义干扰,需要辨清词义和理解上下文才能排除干扰。
10. [A]add增加,添加                                   [B]increase增长,增多
[C]raise提升,举起;增加,提高    [D]arise产生,出现,(由……)引起
本题考核的知识点是:动词辨析
[快速解题]空格所在部分Foreign travel will  10  意为“国外旅行将…”。由生活常识判断,国外旅游在当时已经产生,不可能到2001年才出现,所以排除arise。由其他三项可知,文中强调的是国外旅行的增多,add与raise表示这一含义时为及物动词,不符合文中语法结构,且add的内涵是“(在原来的基础上)增多”,本身含义也不符合,因此正确选项为[B]increase。
[空格设置]increase本身是一个简单词,此题着重考查考生对动词的及物性这一基本语法知识的掌握。
[干扰项设置]其他项add与raise对increase形成同义干扰,而arise又是利用与raise形近设置的另一个层面上的干扰,需要考生利用常识与基本语法知识排除干扰。例句:Shall I add your name to the list?我可以把你的名字写进名单吗?Several new industries arose in the town.城里出现了好几种新行业。injuries arising out of road accident道路交通事故造成的伤害。to raise salaries/public awareness of the issue提高薪水/公众对这个问题的注意。

三、全文翻译
没有人确切地知道2001年世界会是什么样子。关于未来,(人们)已经写过很多书。但是19世纪的法国小说家儒勒•凡尔纳可以完全被称作一位“未来学家”。在他的幻想小说《环绕月球》和《八十天环游地球》中,他对飞机甚至是直升机都做了详细的描述。由于其大胆的想象力和科学的准确性,这些小说对今天的年轻读者仍然具有很强的吸引力。
下面是一位现代作家对“2001年我们的生活将会是什么样子”所做预言的描述。
在2001年,你可以设定家中的灶具,只要按一个开关就能烹制出一整顿美餐。
电视不仅播出新闻和娱乐节目,还将提供附近商店的价格信息。可视电话使电话交谈不仅有声音,而且有图像。
温度、照明、娱乐、安全警报、洗衣和园艺将全部由机器控制。
灯光不仅可以作为装饰,还将作为墙纸。
工作中,机器人将接管制造业中的大部分工作;工作时间将降至每周低于30个小时;假期将延长:标准的年假将达到六周;男性和女性将在同一年龄退休。
我们的闲暇也将变得不同:通过电视和电子游戏,家庭将变成娱乐的中心;与现今相比,人们将更多地外出去餐馆就餐;人们也将有更为广泛的食物种类可供选择;人们的口味将改变,趋向于更加美味的菜肴;新的合成食品将构成人们常规饮食的一部分。
出国旅行将增多;冬季假期将比夏季假期更受欢迎。从英国到澳大利亚及新西兰的直达航班也将很容易就能搭乘,并且会便宜很多。教育也将比以往任何时候都越来越重要。

词汇补充:savoury a. 咸味的;香的,美味的

Section II        Reading Comprehension

Each of the two passages below is followed by five questions. For each question there are four answers. Read the passages carefully and choose the best answer to each of the questions. Put your choice in the brackets on the left. (10 points)


Text 1
①In May 1989, space shuttle “Atlantis” released in outer space the space probe “Megallan,” which is now on her 15-month and one-billion-kilometer flight to Venus. ②A new phase in space exploration has begun.
①The planet Venus is only slightly smaller than Earth; it is the only other object in the solar system, in fact, that even comes close to earth’s size. ②Venus has a similar density, so it is probably made of approximately the same stuff, and it has an atmosphere, complete with clouds. ③It is also the closest planet to earth, and thus the most similar in distance from the sun. ④In short, Venus seems to justify its long-held nickname of “earth’s twin.”
①The surface temperature of Venus reaches some 900F. ②Added to that is an atmospheric pressure about 90 times Earth’s: High overhead in the carbon dioxide (CO2) that passes for air is a layer of clouds, perhaps 10 to 20 miles thick, whose little drops consist mostly of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). ③Water is all but nonexistent.
①Born with so many fundamental similarities to earth, how did Venus get to be so radically different: It is not just an academic matter. ②For all its extremes, Venus is a valuable laboratory for researchers studying the weather and climate of earth. ③It has no earth’s oceans, so the heat transport and other mechanisms are greatly simplified. ④In addition, the planet Venus takes 243 earth-days to turn once on its axis, so incoming heat from the sun is added and distributed at a more leisurely, observable pace.

一、词汇
1.shuttle  n. 返汽车(列车,飞机);航天飞机,航天器
2.release v. 放出,释放                                        3.probe  n. 探测
4.phase   n. 阶段                                                        5.density n. 密度
6.approximately ad. 大概,大约                                7.stuff     n. 材料,东西
8.passes for被当成                                                        9.sulfuric  a. 硫的
10. acid   n. 酸性物质,酸                                        11. axis   n. 轴(线)
12.leisurely    ad. 慢慢地,悠然地
   
二、长难句
1. In May 1989, space shuttle “Atlantis” released in outer space the space probe “Megallan,” which is now on her 15-month and one-billion-kilometer flight to Venus.
该句主干为space shuttle “Atlantis” released … the space probe “Megallan”,which引导的定语从句做后置定语,修饰先行词the space probe “Megallan”。
翻译:1989年5月,“亚特兰蒂斯”号航天飞机将“麦哲伦”号金星探测器释放到外太空,使其开始了前往金星、航行时间十五个月、距离十亿公里的外太空航行。
2. Added to that is an atmospheric pressure about 90 times Earth’s: High overhead in the carbon dioxide (CO2) that passes for air is a layer of clouds, perhaps 10 to 20 miles thick, whose little drops consist mostly of sulfuric acid (H2SO4).
冒号前的句子是倒装句,正常语序为an atmospheric pressure … is added to that,冒号后的部分对也是倒装句,正常语序为a layer of clouds … high overhead in the carbon dioxide。That和whose引导的定语从句分别修饰先行词the carbon dioxide (CO2)和a layer of clouds。
翻译:此外,其气压约为地球的90倍:高空中被看作是空气的二氧化碳形成了一层厚约10到20 公里的浓云,而浓云的主要成分为硫酸。

三、文章结构分析
本文是一篇有关金星和地球之间物理特性异同的说明文。文章主要从体积、密度、构成物质、大气成分、与太阳间的距离、行星表面温度、气压、空气成分、储水量以及太阳热量吸收和散发方式等方面对二者进行了比较。
第一段:由“麦哲伦”号的升空引入探索金星的话题。
第二段:阐述了金星与地球在体积、密度、构成物质、大气成分、与太阳间的距离等方面的相似之处。
第三段:从行星表面温度、气压、空气成分、储水量等方面探讨了金星与地球之间的差异。
第四段:指出研究金星的目的在于更好地了解地球,并说明能够实现该目的的原因。

四、试题具体分析
11.        Venus is similar to Earth in ________.        11. 金星和地球在_______上是相近的。
[A] size and density        [A] 体积和密度
[B] distance from the sun        [B] 同太阳之间的距离
[C] having atmosphere        [C] 拥有大气层
[D] all of the above        [D] 以上所有方面
[分析]本题考查的知识点是:具体细节。
文章第二段主要阐述了金星和地球的相似之处。①②③句分别指出,太阳系中金星是在体积上唯一与地球接近的行星;金星的密度也与地球相近,且金星上也有大气;在同太阳之间的距离上,地球和金星也是接近的。即,二者在体积和密度、同太阳之间的距离和是否拥有大气层方面都是相似的,故[D]选项正确。
[A]、[B]、[C]选项都只片面地概括了二者相似点中的一个方面。
12.        The greatest value in studying Venus should be to ________.        12. 研究金星最大的价值应在于________.
[A] allow us to visit there        [A] 使我们能够游览金星
[B] understand Earth better        [B] 更好地了解地球
[C] find a new source of energy        [C] 找到新的能量来源
[D] promote a new space program        [D] 推出一个新的太空计划
[分析]本题考查的知识点是:推理引申。
文章第四段②句指出:由于金星所有的极端特性,对于研究地球天气和气候的人们来说它是很重要的实验室。[B]选项是对该句的概括,故正确。
[A]、[C]选项无中生有,文中并未谈及去金星旅游以及探查新的能量来源的话题。[D]选项是利用原文词汇a new phase, space exploration编造的干扰项,对金星的研究的目的却不是为了推出一个新的太空计划。
13.        The main idea of this passage is about ________.        13. 本文的主旨是关于________。
[A] problems of space travel        [A] 太空旅行的问题
[B] scientific methods in space exploration        [B] 太空探索的科学方案
[C] the importance of Venus to Earth        [C] 金星对地球的重要性
[D] conditions on Venus        [D] 金星上的环境
[分析]本题考查的知识点是:文章主旨。
文章第一段引出金星探测的话题。第二、三段指出了金星和地球在物理特性方面的异同。第四段指出了研究金星的目的。可见,文章谈及金星同地球之间的异同为了说明其对地球的重要性,故[C]选项正确。
[A]、[B]选项分别是利用第一段词汇space和 space exploration设置的干扰项,文章并未涉及太空旅行的问题和太空发开的科学方案。[D]选项太窄,只是对文章第二、三段的概括,不足以概括全文。
五、全文翻译
1989年5月,“亚特兰蒂斯”号航天飞机将“麦哲伦”号金星探测器释放到外太空,使其开始了前往金星、航行时间十五个月、距离十亿公里的外太空航行。太空探测领域的一个新阶段开始了。
金星只比地球稍小点,事实上,它是太阳系里在体积上唯一与地球接近的行星。金星的密度同地球相似,因此,两者很可能几乎由同种物质构成,而且金星上也有大气层和云层。它也是离地球最近的行星,因而,两者同太阳的距离也是最接近的。简而言之,金星似乎证明了其长久以来的昵称——“地球的孪生姊妹”——是实至名归的。
金星表面温度可达到华氏900 度。此外,其气压约为地球的90倍:高空中被看作是空气的二氧化碳形成了一层厚约10到20 公里的浓云,而浓云的主要成分为硫酸。在金星上液态的水几乎是不存在的。
金星天生就与地球有如此之多的基本相似之处,那金星会怎么与地球貌合神离呢:这不仅仅是一种理论上的问题。由于其所有的极端特性,对于研究地球天气和气候的人们来说金星是很重要的实验室。在金星上找不到地球上的海洋,所以热交换和其他作用过程被大量简化了。另外,金星的自转周期为243个地球日,所以它可以源源不断地吸收来自太阳的热量并以一种更加缓慢且可观察到的的方式散发出去。


Text 2
①Tourists were surprised to see a woman driving a huge orange tractor down one of Rome’s main avenues. ②Italy’s political leaders and some of its male union chiefs are said to have been even more puzzled to see that the tractor was followed by about 200,000 women in a parading procession that took more than three hours to snake through central Rome.
①Shouting slogans, waving flags and dancing to drumbeats, the women had come to the capital from all over Italy to demonstrate for “a job for each of us, a different type of job, and a society without violence.” ②So far, action to improve women’s opportunities in employment has been the province of collective industrial bargaining. ③“But there is a growing awareness that this is not enough,” says a researcher on female labor at the government-funded Institute for the Development of Professional Training for Workers.
①Women, who constitute 52 per cent of Italy’s population, today represent only 35 per cent of Italy’s total workforce and 33 per cent of the total number of Italians with jobs. ②However, their presence in the workplace is growing. ③The employment of women is expanding considerably in services, next to the public administration and commerce as their principal workplace. ④Official statistics also show that women have also made significant strides in self-employment. ⑤More and more women are going into business for themselves. ⑥Many young women are turning to business because of the growing overall in employment. ⑦It is also a fact that today many prejudices have disappeared, so that banks and other financial institutes make judgments on purely business considerations without caring if it is a man or a woman.
①Such changes are occurring in the professions too. ②The number of women doctors, dentists, lawyers, engineers and university professors increased two to three fold. ③Some of the changes are immediately visible. ④For example, women have appeared on the scene for the first time as state police, railway workers and street cleaners.
①However, the present situation is far from satisfactory though some progress has been made. ②A breakthrough in equal opportunities for women is now demanded.

一、词汇
1.avenue n. 林荫道,大街                                        2.chief n. 首领
3.parading a. 游行的                                                4.procession n. 队伍,行列
5.slogan n. 标语,口号                                                6.demonstrate v. 示威
7.province n.(单数,正式)知识(或兴趣、职责)范围,领域
8.bargaining n. 议价,交易                                        9.go into business从商、经商
10.bre1akthrough n. 突破


二、长难句
1. Italy’s political leaders and some of its male union chiefs are said to have been even more puzzled to see that the tractor was followed by about 200,000 women in a parading procession that took more than three hours to snake through central Rome.
该句主干为“be said+不定式完成式”的结构:Italy’s political leaders and some of its male union chiefs are said to have been puzzled to see…,不定式的核心结构be puzzled to see sth,第一个that引导的宾语从句做see的宾语,该从句中又嵌套了一个that引导的定语从句做后置定语,修饰名词procession。
翻译:据说,当看到这个由200,000名妇女组成的游行队伍跟在这拖拉机后面竟用了三个多小时才蛇行穿过罗马市中心时,意大利的政治领袖们和该国一些男性联盟主席感到更困惑。

2. The employment of women is expanding considerably in services, next to the public administration and commerce as their principal workplace.
该句的主干The employment of women is expanding,介词短语in services做状语,表示“在服务行业”。形容词短语next to …做后置定语,修饰名词services,相当于一个定语从句which is next to … as their principal workplace,意为“作为她们(女性)的主要工作领域仅次于……”。
翻译:服务行业的女性员工的人数正大幅攀升,仅低于公共管理和商业领域内女性员工的数目。

3. It is also a fact that today many prejudices have disappeared, so that banks and other financial institutes make judgments on purely business considerations without caring if it is a man or a woman.
该句的主干为It is also a fact that …,其中it为形式主语,that引导的主语从句为真正的主语。该主语从句是个主从复合句,其中so that引导结果状语从句。该状语从句的主干结构为banks and other financial institutes make judgments,介词短语without caring …做状语。If引导的从句做caring的逻辑宾语。
翻译:事实上,现今许多针对女性的歧视也消失了,银行和其他的金融机构的判断完全是基于商业目的而不关心其员工的性别。

三、文章结构分析
本文主要介绍了意大利女性就业状况的变化。文章主要采用了列数字,举例子等论证方法。
第一、二段:通过对示威游行画面的描述引出文章论述的话题:意大利的女性正在争取更多的工作机会以及工作性质的改变。
第三、四段:通过数据指出虽然女性在工作机会上虽仍处于劣势,但状况却在不断的改善,
第五段:总结全文,强调女性的就业状况仍不尽人意,需要改革突破。

四、试题具体分析
14.        The expression “snake through central Rome” probably means “to move ________.        14. “snake through central Rome”表达的含义可能是________。
[A] quietly through central Rome.”        [A] 安静地穿过罗马市中心
[B] violently through central Rome.”        [B] 狂怒地穿过罗马市中心
[C] in a long winding line through central Rome.”        [C] 以漫长而曲折的路线穿过罗马市中心
[D] at a leisurely pace through central Rome.”        [D] 闲庭信步般穿过罗马市中心
[分析]本题考查的知识点是:根据上下文推测词义。
动词snake的意思是由其名词释义 “蛇”的生理特性演变而来,意为to move like a snake, in a long twisting curves,即“曲折前行,蛇行”。[C]选项中的in a long winding line 对应 in a long twisting curves,故正确。
[A]、[D]选项分别错在quietly和at a leisurely pace。由第二段第一句可知,这20万人的游行队伍是喊着口号、挥动着旗子还踏着鼓点穿过罗马市中心的,因此不可能是“安静的”或“闲庭信步的”。文中并未指出游行队伍同任何机构或团体产生冲突,因此谈不上是violently,故排除[B]选项。
15.        Which of the following statements is NOT true?        15. 下列哪一项说法是不正确的?
[A] There are more women than men in Italy.        [A] 在意大利女性人数要多于男性。
[B] In Italy, women are chiefly employed in services.        [B] 在意大利,女性主要从事服务行业。
[C] In Italy, women are still at a disadvantage in employment.        [C] 在意大利,女性在就业方面仍处于劣势。
[D] In Italy, about two-thirds of the jobs are held by men.        [D] 在意大利,大约三分之二的工作被男性把持着。
[分析] 本题考查的知识点是:事实细节。
文章第三段③句指出,服务行业的女性员工的人数正大幅攀升,仅低于公共管理和商业领域内女性员工数目。可知,在意大利,女性员工数目最多的三个领域分别是公共管理、商业、服务业,即服务行业的女性员工的数目排在第三位。故[B]选项错误。
文章第三段①句指出,在意大利,女性人口占全国总人口的52%但却只占意大利工人总数的35%。可知,在意大利女性确实要比男性多但全国三分之二的工作被男性把持着。第五段①句指出,虽然女性就业情况得到了改善但状况还远不尽人意,即,在意大利女性在就业方面仍处于劣势。故[A]、[C]、[D]都是正确的。
16.        About 200,000 women in Rome demonstrated for ________.        16.约200,000名在罗马示威争取________。
[A] more job opportunities        [A] 更多的工作机会
[B] a greater variety of jobs        [B] 更多类型的工作
[C] “equal job, equal pay”        [C]“同工同酬”
[D] both A and B        [D] [A]和[B]选项的内容
[分析] 本题考查的知识点是:具体细节。
文章第二段①句指出了20万女性从全国各地聚集到意大利首都,他们示威的口号是“人人有工作,工作多样化,以及社会无暴力。”即她们争取的是更多的工作机会、更多类型的工作以及一个没有暴力的社会。[D]选项是对示威口号前两句的概括,故正确。
[A]、[B]选项都只概括了示威口号的一部分。[C]选项无中生有,“同工同酬”并非是这次示威的口号。
17.        The best title for this passage would be ________.        17. 本文最好的标题是______。
[A] The Role of Women in Society        [A] 女性在社会中的作用
[B] Women Demonstrate for Equality in Employment        [B] 女性争取就业平等
[C] Women as Self-employed Professionals        [C] 作为自由职业者的女性们
[D] Women and the Jobs Market        [D] 女性与工作市场
[分析]本题考查的知识点是:文章主旨。
文章前两段指出了意大利20万女性的示威游行活动,目的是要争取更多的工作机会、工作性质的改变以及一个没有暴力的社会。第三、四段通过数据指出了虽然女性在工作机会上处于劣势,但状况却在不断的改善。第五段总结全文,指出女性的就业状况虽有所改善,但结果却不尽人意,仍需要改革突破。可见,全文主要是围绕意大利女性争取就业平等而展开的,故[B]选项正确。
[A]选项无中生有。文章只涉及了意大利女性就业情况的变化并未涉及其在社会中的作用。[C]是根据原文词汇self-employment和professions编造的干扰项。[D]选项无中生有。文章并未谈及工作市场,故可排除。
五、全文翻译
当看到一个女人驾着一辆橙色的巨型拖拉机沿着罗马的一条主街行驶时,游客们都感到很诧异。据说,当看到这个由200,000名妇女组成的游行队伍跟在这拖拉机后面竟用了三个多小时才蛇行穿过罗马市中心时,意大利的政治领袖们和该国一些男性联盟主席感到更困惑。
这些喊着口号,挥动着旗子还踏着鼓点前行的女性是从意大利各地聚集到首都的,她们游行示威以争取“人人有工作,工作多样化,以及社会无暴力。”到目前为止,提高妇女的就业机会已成为企业劳资谈判的话题。一位在政府资助的“劳工专业培训发展机构”中女性劳工部门工作的研究人员表示“光是认识上的不断提高还是不够的。”
如今,女性人口占了意大利人口总数的52%,却只占全国工人总数的35%,占意大利就业总人数的33%。但是,女性员工的人数却不断上升。服务行业的女性员工的人数正大幅攀升,仅低于公共管理和商业领域内女性员工的数目。官方数据也表明了自主经营的女性人数也有了大幅的上升。越来越多的女性正在开创自己的事业。许多年轻的女性开始进入工商企业,因为这个领域雇佣人数越来越多。事实上,现今许多针对女性的歧视也消失了,银行和其他的金融机构的判断完全是基于商业目的而不关心其员工的性别。
这种变化也正发生在专业领域里。女医生、女牙医、女律师、女工程师和女教授的数量增加了两到三倍。一些变化是立竿见影的。例如,女性第一次出现在了国家警察、铁路工人和街道清洁人员的行列之中。
然而,女性的就业状况虽有所改善但还远不尽人意。如今仍需要在女性就业机会平等方面取得突破性的进展。


Text 3
①The old idea that talented children “burn themselves out” in the early years, and, therefore, are subjected to failure and at worst, mental illness is unfounded. ②As a matter of fact, the outstanding thing that happens to bright kids is that they are very likely to grow into bright adults.
To find this out, l, 500 gifted persons were followed up to their thirty-fifth year with these results:
①On adult intelligence tests, they scored as high as they had as children. ②They were, as a group, in good health, physically and mentally. ③84 per cent of their group were married and seemed content with their lives.
①About 70 per cent had graduated from college, though only 30 per cent had graduated with honors. ②A few had even dropped out, but nearly half of these had returned to graduate. ③Of the men, 80 per cent were in one of the professions or in business management or semiprofessional jobs. ④The women who had remained single had office, business, or professional occupations.
The group had published 90 books and 1,500 articles in scientific, scholarly, and literary magazines and had collected more than 100 patents.
①In a material way they did not do badly either. ②Average income was considerably higher among the gifted people, especially the men, than for the country as a whole, despite their comparative youth.
In fact, far from being strange, most of the gifted were turning their early promise into practical reality.


一、词汇
1.subjected to容易遭受                                                2.unfounded a. 无理由的
3.follow up跟踪,监督                                                        4.drop out退学
5.patent n. 专利权,专利品                                                6.comparative a. 比较的,相当的
7.promise n. 获得成功的迹象

二、长难句
1. The old idea that talented children “burn themselves out” in the early years, and, therefore, are subjected to failure and at worst, mental illness is unfounded.
该句的主干为The old idea that …is unfounded,其中that引导的从句做主语名词The old idea的同位语。该从句的主干为talented children “burn themselves out” …  and are subjected to failure and … mental illness。
翻译:聪明的孩子年少时就“江郎才尽”从而变得一事无成甚至患有精神疾病,这种旧有的说法是没有根据的。
2. As a matter of fact, the outstanding thing that happens to bright kids is that they are very likely to grow into bright adults.
该句的主干为the outstanding thing that … is that …。第一个that引导定语从句,修饰主语名词the outstanding thing,第二个that引导表语从句。
翻译:事实上,聪明的孩子的杰出之处在于他们很可能在成年后还是很聪明的。
3. Average income was considerably higher among the gifted people, especially the men, than for the country as a whole, despite their comparative youth.
该句主干为Average income was considerably higher … than (that) for the country as a whole,短语among the gifted people, especially the men和 for the country as a whole是相比较的范围。介词短语despite …做让步状语。
翻译:这群天资禀赋之人,尤其是其中的男人,虽然比较年轻,但与全国其他人相比,他们的平均收入却高得多。

三、文章结构分析
本文是一篇先驳后立的文章,批驳了天才儿童在年少时就“江郎才尽”的说法,指出聪明的孩子在成年后仍然是很有才华的。
第一段:开篇驳斥有关天才儿童早期才尽的旧有说法,并提出新的观点,即聪明的孩子成年后仍然很聪明。
第二至六段:用实验结果证明了表明了绝大多数的天儿童成年后仍取得了很大的成就,从而证明了作者观点的正确性。
第七段:总结全文,重申文章主旨:大多数天才儿童都能将其年少时的梦想变为现实。

四、试题具体分析
18.        The old idea that talented children “burn themselves out” in the early years is ________.        18. 聪明的孩子年少时就“江郎才尽“这种旧有的说法______。
[A] true in all senses        [A] 在任何意义上来说都是正确的
[B] refuted by the author        [B] 被作者驳斥了
[C] medically proven        [C] 是有医学根据的
[D] a belief of the author        [D] 是作者的一种信仰
[分析]本题考查的知识点是:文章主旨。
作者开篇表明自己的观点:聪明的孩子年少时就“江郎才尽”从而变得一事无成甚至变得精神失常,这种旧有的说法是没有根据的。并在下文通过对1500名天才的检测调查证明了该观点的正确性。unfounded即表明作者是否定这种说法的,故[B]选项正确。
[A]选项反向干扰。[C]选项反向干扰,文章开篇即指出聪明的孩子年少时就“江郎才尽”的说法是没有根据的。[D]选项反向干扰,根据上面的分析可知作者是批驳这种说法的,因此其不可能是作者的信仰,故排除。
19.        The survey of bright children was made to ________.        19. 对聪明的孩子进行调查是为了________.
[A] find out what had happened to talented children when they became adults        [A] 查明这些有天赋的孩子成年后的状况如何
[B] prove that talented children “burn themselves out” in the early years        [B] 证明聪明的孩子年少时就会“江郎才尽”
[C] discover the percentage of those mentally ill among the gifted        [C] 得到这些天才儿童中患精神疾病的人的比例
[D] prove that talented children never burn themselves out        [D] 证明天才儿童永远都不会“江郎才尽”
[分析]本题考查的知识点是:写作目的。
文章第二至五段详述了对1500名天才儿童进行跟踪检测,得到他们成年后在生活、学习、工作、成就和薪酬等方面的具体情况,从而证明聪明的孩子很可能在成年后还是很聪明的。可知,调查的直接目的就是为了查明天才儿童成年之后的状况如何,故[A]选项正确。
[B]选项反向干扰。作者在第一段就驳斥了这种说法,引用实验的目的是为了证明这种说法的错误性。[C]选项是根据原文词汇gifted, mental illness , percentage编造的干扰项,且文章第三段②句(They were,… in good health, physically and mentally.)也否定了这一说法。[D]选项过于绝对且无法推知。实验并没有指出所有的天才儿童长大之后都会很有才华,另外对实验对象的跟踪测试一直进行到他们35岁为止,因此对于天资禀赋之人35岁后的情况无法推知。
20.        Intelligence tests showed that ________.        20. 智力测试表明_______。
[A] bright children were unlikely to be mentally healthy        [A] 聪明的孩子是不可能精神正常的
[B] between childhood and adulthood there was a considerable loss of intelligence        [B] 从孩提到成年智力丧失很严重的
[C] talented children were most likely to become gifted adults        [C] 天才儿童成年后最可能成为有才华的人
[D] when talented children grew into adults, they made low scores        [D] 当天才儿童成年后很难取得成就
[分析]本题考查的知识点是:具体细节。
根据关键词定位到文章第三段。该段①句指出,在成人智力测试上,孩提时智商很高的人在成年后同样会取得很高的分数。紧接着在下文指出这些孩子成年后在生活,学习,工作以及所取得的成就等方面也是十分突出的。由此可知,智力测试表明了天才儿童成年后也最可能成为有才华的人,[C]选项正确。
[A]选项反向干扰。智力测试无法对精神状态进行测试,且第三段②句指出了这些孩子成年后身心状况都是良好的。文章主要论述了天才儿童在成年之后仍然是很有才华的,因此他们从孩提到成年智力并没有丧失而且他们也是很有成就的,故可排除[B]、[D]选项。

五、全文翻译
聪明的孩子年少时就“江郎才尽”从而变得一事无成甚至患有精神疾病,这种旧有的说法是没有根据的。事实上,聪明的孩子的杰出之处在于他们很可能在成年后还是很聪明的。
为了验证这一结论,实验跟踪监测了1,500名有天赋的人,这个实验一直进行到他们35岁为止,结果发现:
在成人智力测试上,他们的得分同他们孩提时的得分一样高。作为一个群体,他们身心状况良好。在这个群体中,有84%的人已经结婚了而且似乎对自己的生活感到满意。
虽然只有30%的人是优秀毕业生,但大学毕业的人数约为70%。虽然有几个人曾中途退学,但是其中将近一半的人又重新返回了学校并毕业。其中男性中的80%的人在专业领域、企业管理或是半专业领域里从事工作。而其中仍为单身的女性也在办事处、企业或专业领域工作。
这群人已经编著了90本书并在科学、学术以及文学杂志上发表了1500篇文章以及拥有100多项专利权。
在现实生活中,他们也表现良好。这群天资禀赋之人,尤其是其中的男人,虽然比较年轻,但与全国其他人相比,他们的平均收入却高得多。
事实上,不足为奇,大多数的天才都会将其早年的迹象转化为现实。

Section III        English-Chinese Translation
Read the following passage carefully and then translate the sentences underlined into Chinese. (20 points)

People have wondered for a long time how their personalities and behaviors are formed. It is not easy to explain why one person is intelligent and another is not, or why one is cooperative and another is competitive.
Social scientists are, of course, extremely interested in these types of questions. (21) They want to explain why we possess certain characteristics and exhibit certain behaviors. There are no clear answers yet, but two distinct schools of thought on the matter have developed. As one might expect, the two approaches are very different from each other. The controversy is often conveniently referred to as “nature vs. nurture.”
(22) Those who support the “nature” side of the conflict believe that our personalities and behavior patterns are largely determined by biological factors. (23) That our environment has little, if anything, to do with our abilities, characteristics and behavior is central to this theory.
Taken to an extreme, this theory maintains that our behavior is pre-determined to such a great degree that we are almost completely governed by our instincts.
Those who support the “nurture” theory, that is, they advocate education, are often called behaviorists. They claim that our environment is more important than our biologically based instincts in determining how we will act. A behaviorist, B. F. Skinner, sees humans as beings whose behavior is almost completely shaped by their surroundings. (24) The behaviorists maintain that, like machines, humans respond to environmental stimuli as the basis of their behavior.
Let us examine the different explanations about one human characteristic, intelligence, offered by the two theories. (25) Supporters of the “nature” theory insist that we are born with a certain capacity for learning that is biologically determined. Needless to say: They don’t believe that factors in the environment have much influence on what is basically a predetermined characteristic. On the other hand, behaviorists argue that our intelligence levels are the product of our experiences. (26) Behaviorists suggest that the child who is raised in an environment where there are many stimuli which develop his or her capacity for appropriate responses will experience greater intellectual development.
The social and political implications of these two theories are profound. (27) In the United States, blacks often score below whites on standardized intelligence tests. This leads some “nature” proponents to conclude that blacks are biologically inferior to whites. (28) Behaviorists, in contrast, say that differences in scores are due to the fact that blacks are often deprived of many of the educational and other environmental advantages that whites enjoy.
Most people think neither of these theories can yet fully explain human behavior.


一、试题结构分析
本文先引出了关于人类的性格和行为是怎样形成的两种截然不同的理论。接着分别介绍了“天性”论和“培养”论的不同观点。最后举例说明了这两种理论的社会和政治影响。


二、试题具体解析
21.        本题考核的知识点是:宾语从句
[句子结构] 该句的主干为They want to explain …,why引导的从句做explain的宾语。
[词义确定]possess意为“拥有”;characteristic“特性,特征”;exhibit“呈现,展现”。
[翻译]他们想要说明,为什么我们具有某些性格特征和表现出某些行为。
22.        本题考核的知识点是:定语从句,宾语从句
[句子结构] 该句的主干为Those … believe that …,who引导的定语从句做后置定语,修饰主语those,that引导的从句做believe的宾语。
[词义确定]side意为“一方”;conflict意为“冲突”;pattern意为“模式,式样”。
[翻译]在这场争论中,赞成“天性”一方的那些人认为,我们的性格特征和行为模式大多是由生物因素所决定的。
23.        本题考核的知识点是:主语从句,插入语。
[句子结构] 该句的主干为That … is central to this theory,其中主语由that引导的从句担当,从句的主干为our environment has little to do with our abilities, characteristics and behavior。
[词义确定]if anything意为“如果有什么的话”;have … to do with意为“与…有关”。
[翻译]这种理论的核心是,我们的环境同我们的才能、性格特征和行为即使有什么关系的话,也是微不足道的。
24.        本题考核的知识点是:宾语从句
[句子结构] 该句的主干为The behaviorists maintain that …,其中that引导宾语从句。
[词义确定]maintain意为“主张”;respond to意为“对...反应”。
[翻译]行为主义者坚信,人象机器一样,对环境的刺激作出反应,这是他们行为的基础。
25.        本题考核的知识点是:宾语从句,后置定语
[句子结构] 该句的主干为Supporters of the “nature” theory insist that …,that引导宾语从句。从句的主干为we are born with a certain capacity,介词短语for learning和定语从句that is biologically determined都做后置定语,修饰名词capacity。
[词义确定]insist意为“坚持,强调”;capacity意为“能力”;determine意为“决定”。
[翻译]支持“天性”论的人坚持说,我们生来就具有一定的学习才能,这是由生物因素决定的。
26.        本题考核的知识点是:多重从句的嵌套
[句子结构] 该句的特点是多重从句的嵌套。句子主干为Behaviorists suggest that …,that引导的从句做suggest的宾语。该从句的主干为the child … will experience greater intellectual development,其中who引导的定语从句(who is raised in an environment … responses)做后置定语,修饰主语名词the child。其中environment后又接有where引导的定语从句(where there are many stimuli …responses)修饰它。其中名词stimuli后又接有which引导的定语从句修饰它(which develop his or her capacity for appropriate responses)。
[词义确定]raise意为“抚养”;stimuli意为“刺激”。
[翻译]行为主义者认为,如果一个儿童在有许多刺激物的环境里成长,而这些刺激物能够发展其作出适当反应的能力,那么,这个儿童将会有更高的智力发展。
27.        本题考核的知识点是:简单句
[句子结构] 该句为简单句,其主干为blacks often score below whites,介词短语on standardized intelligence tests做状语。
[词义确定]score意为“得分”;standardized意为“标准的”。
[翻译]在美国,黑人在标准化智力测试中的成绩常常低于白人。
28.        本题考核的知识点是:宾语从句,同位语从句,定语从句
[句子结构]该句的插入语in contrast表明它和上文之间的转折关系。句子的主干为Behaviorists say that …,that引导宾语从句。从句的主干为differences in scores are due to the fact that …,其中that引导的从句做the fact的同位语。该同位语从句中又嵌套了一个定语从句that whites enjoy修饰名词advantages。
[词义确定]due to意为“因为”;deprive sb of sth意为“剥夺”;advantage意为“优势,有利条件”。
[翻译]相反,行为主义者认为,成绩的差异是由于黑人常常被剥夺了白人在教育及其它环境方面所享有的许多有利条件。

三、全文翻译
很长时间以来人们一直想知道他们的性格和行为是怎样形成的。很难解释为什么一个人聪明,而另一个人愚笨或者为什么一个人善于合作,而另一个人酷爱竞争。
当然,社会科学家对这几类问题极其感兴趣。(21)他们想要说明,为什么我们具有某些性格特征和表现出某些行为。对此还没有清晰的答案,但是关于这一点已经形成了两个不同的思想流派。正如人们所预计的,这两种思想方式是截然不同的。这一分歧通常被简称为“天性与培养”。
(22)在这场争论中,赞成“天性”一方的那些人认为,我们的性格特征和行为模式大多是由生物因素所决定的。(23)这种理论的核心是,我们的环境同我们的才能、性格特征和行为即使有什么关系的话,也是微不足道的。
该理论的极致观点是:我们的行为是先天注定的,以至于我们几乎完全受本能的控制。
那些支持“培养”论的人,即提倡教育者,经常被称之为“行为主义者”。他们声称,在决定我们会有怎样的行为上,环境比生物决定的本能更重要。行为主义学家伯尔赫斯•弗雷德里克•斯金纳将人类看作其行为几乎完全受到环境影响的生物。(24)行为主义者坚信,人象机器一样,对环境的刺激作出反应,这是他们行为的基础。
让我们检验一下这两种理论提出的对人类特点、智商的不同解释。(25)支持“天性”论的人坚持说,我们生来就具有一定的学习才能,这是由生物因素决定的。不用说,他们不相信环境因素对基本上由先天决定的特点有很大影响。另外一方面,行为主义者认为我们的智商水平是经验的产物。(26)行为主义者认为,如果一个儿童在有许多刺激物的环境里成长,而这些刺激物能够发展其作出适当反应的能力,那么,这个儿童将会有更高的智力发展。
这两种理论的社会和政治影响是深刻的。(27)在美国,黑人在标准化智力测试中的成绩常常低于白人。这使得一些“天性”提倡者得出在生物学上黑人比白人低劣的观点。(28)相反,行为主义者认为,成绩的差异是由于黑人常常被剥夺了白人在教育及其它环境方面所享有的许多有利条件。
大多数人认为这两种理论都未能充分解释人类的行为。

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发表于 2009-9-14 20:30 |
去那找,有的话给我份。438181769@qq.com

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发表于 2009-9-24 14:38 |
谢谢啦

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发表于 2009-9-30 20:14 |
谢谢

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发表于 2009-9-30 21:43 |

求解析

楼主,
首先感谢。
那网站好难进哦。有91-99的解析吗?
请给我一份。dongshengzou@126.com
再次感谢

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发表于 2009-10-1 23:12 |
楼主真是个好人~~~

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发表于 2009-10-1 23:12 |

哥们 有没有里面的指导资料或视频啊 传下540914983@qq .com

谢谢了 感谢了

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发表于 2009-10-2 12:48 |
能发份给我吗?直接复制过来就乱了。hefeng122@yahoo.com.cn谢谢!

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发表于 2009-10-3 15:46 |
额  楼主 邮箱帮忙发个```yang1988@126.com  谢谢了啊   :) :) :)

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发表于 2009-10-3 17:51 |
谢谢楼主!zhujiawei88@126.com
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